Y gwahaniaeth rhwng diwygiadau o "Canada"

Ychwanegwyd 19,281 beit ,  1 mis yn ôl
+ Hanes
(ehangu)
(+ Hanes)
== Hanes ==
{{prif|Hanes Canada}}
=== Pobl frodorol ===
Enillodd Canada annibyniaeth rannol oddi wrth Brydain ar 1 Gorffennaf 1867.
[[Delwedd:Langs_N.Amer.svg|alt=Colour-coded map of North America showing the distribution of North American language families north of Mexico|bawd| [[Ieithoedd brodorol yr Amerig|Ardaloedd ieithyddol pobl frodorol Gogledd America]] ar adeg cyswllt Ewropeaidd]]
Ymhlith y bobl frodorol yng Nghanada heddiw mae'r Cenhedloedd Cyntaf, [[Inuit]] a Métis, <ref name="GraberKuprecht2012">{{Cite book|last=Graber|first=Christoph Beat|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5dv2d57n52MC&pg=PA366|title=International Trade in Indigenous Cultural Heritage: Legal and Policy Issues|last2=Kuprecht|first2=Karolina|last3=Lai|first3=Jessica C.|publisher=Edward Elgar Publishing|year=2012|isbn=978-0-85793-831-2|page=366}}</ref> yr olaf yn bobl gwaed cymysg a darddodd yng nghanol yr [[17g]] pan briododd pobl y Cenhedloedd Cyntaf â gwladychwyr Ewropeaidd ac a ddatblygodd eu hunaniaeth eu hunain wedi hynny.<ref name="GraberKuprecht2012" />
 
Rhagdybir yn gyffredinol bod [[Anheddiad yr America|trigolion cyntaf Gogledd America]] wedi mudo o [[Siberia]] trwy bont dir Bering (Beringia) a chyrraedd o leiaf 14,000 o flynyddoedd yn ôl (CP).<ref>{{Cite book|last=Dillehay|first=Thomas D.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=aM0CRBQ9kFcC&pg=PA61|title=The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory|publisher=Basic Books|year=2008|isbn=978-0-7867-2543-4|page=61}}</ref><ref name="FaganDurrani2016">{{Cite book|last=Fagan|first=Brian M.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fMneCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA124|title=World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction|last2=Durrani|first2=Nadia|publisher=Routledge|year=2016|isbn=978-1-317-34244-1|page=124}}</ref> Mae'r safleoedd archeolegol [[Paleo-Indiaidd]] yn ''Old Crow Flats'' ac [[Ogofâu Pysgod Glas|Ogofau Bluefish]] yn ddau o'r safleoedd hynaf i bobl fyw ynddynt yng Nghanada.<ref name="Rawat2012">{{Cite book|last=Rawat|first=Rajiv|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AwlYiuPAX-UC&pg=PT58|title=Circumpolar Health Atlas|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=2012|isbn=978-1-4426-4456-4|page=58}}</ref> Roedd nodweddion cymdeithasau brodorol yn cynnwys aneddiadau parhaol, [[amaethyddiaeth]], hierarchaethau cymdeithasol cymhleth, a rhwydweithiau masnachu.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Hayes|first=Derek|title=Canada: An Illustrated History|publisher=Douglas & Mcintyre|year=2008|isbn=978-1-55365-259-5|pages=7, 13}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Macklem|first=Patrick|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=quM1xyFyfhQC&pg=PA170|title=Indigenous Difference and the Constitution of Canada|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=2001|isbn=978-0-8020-4195-1|page=170}}</ref> Dim ond trwy ymchwiliadau archeolegol diweddar y cafodd y diwylliannau brodorol hyn eu darganfod.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Sonneborn|first=Liz|title=Chronology of American Indian History|date=January 2007|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-0-8160-6770-1|pages=2–12}}</ref>
 
Amcangyfrifir bod y boblogaeth frodorol ar adeg yr aneddiadau Ewropeaidd cyntaf rhwng 200,000<ref name="dying">{{Cite book|last=Wilson|first=Donna M|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=p_pMVs53mzQC&pg=PA25|title=Dying and Death in Canada|last2=Northcott|first2=Herbert C|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=2008|isbn=978-1-55111-873-4|pages=25–27}}</ref> a dwy filiwn,<ref name="Steckel">{{Cite book|last=Thornton|first=Russell|title=A population history of North America|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|year=2000|isbn=978-0-521-49666-7|editor-last=Haines|editor-first=Michael R|pages=13, 380|chapter=Population history of Native North Americans|editor-last2=Steckel|editor-first2=Richard Hall}}</ref> gyda ffigur o 500,000 wedi'i dderbyn gan Gomisiwn Brenhinol Canada ar Bobl Cynfrodorol.<ref>{{Cite book|last=O'Donnell|first=C. Vivian|title=Indians in Contemporary Society|publisher=Government Printing Office|year=2008|isbn=978-0-16-080388-8|editor-last=Bailey|editor-first=Garrick Alan|series=Handbook of North American Indians|volume=2|page=285|chapter=Native Populations of Canada}}</ref> O ganlyniad i wladychu Ewropeaidd, gostyngodd y boblogaeth frodorol rhwng 40 ac 80%, a diflannodd sawl Gwlad Gyntaf, fel y [[Beothuk]].<ref name="Marshall1998">{{Cite book|last=Marshall|first=Ingeborg|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ckOav3Szu7oC&pg=PA442|title=A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk|publisher=McGill-Queen's University Press|year=1998|isbn=978-0-7735-1774-5|page=442}}</ref> Mae'r dirywiad hwn yn cael ei briodoli i nifer o achosion, gan gynnwys trosglwyddo clefydau Ewropeaidd, megis y [[Y ffliw|ffliw]], [[Brech goch|y frech goch]], a'r [[Brech wen|frech wen]] gan nad oedd ganddynt unrhyw imiwnedd naturiol. Yn ogystal a hyn roedd gwrthdaro parhaus rhwng y goresgynwyr gwyn a'r bobl frodorol:<ref name="dying" /> <ref>{{Cite book|last=True Peters|first=Stephanie|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=v0zEiM_hijsC&pg=PA39|title=Smallpox in the New World|publisher=Marshall Cavendish|year=2005|isbn=978-0-7614-1637-1|page=39}}</ref> gwrthdaro dros y fasnach ffwr, gwrthdaro gyda'r awdurdodau trefedigaethol ac ymsefydlwyr, a cholli tiroedd Cynhenid i ymsefydlwyr.<ref name="LaidlawLester2015">{{Cite book|last=Laidlaw|first=Z.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Ec-_BwAAQBAJ&pg=PT150|title=Indigenous Communities and Settler Colonialism: Land Holding, Loss and Survival in an Interconnected World|last2=Lester|first2=Alan|publisher=Springer|year=2015|isbn=978-1-137-45236-8|page=150}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Ray|first=Arthur J.|url=https://archive.org/details/ihavelivedheresi0000raya/page/244|title=I Have Lived Here Since The World Began|publisher=Key Porter Books|year=2005|isbn=978-1-55263-633-6|page=[https://archive.org/details/ihavelivedheresi0000raya/page/244 244]}}</ref>
 
Dechreuodd y Goron a'r Bobl Gynhenid ryngweithio yn ystod y cyfnod cytrefu Ewropeaidd, er bod y Inuit, yn gyffredinol, wedi rhyngweithio'n fwy cyfyngedig ag ymsefydlwyr Ewropeaidd.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Tanner|first=Adrian|year=1999|title=3. Innu-Inuit 'Warfare'|url=http://www.heritage.nf.ca/aboriginal/innu_culture.html|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141230222741/http://www.heritage.nf.ca/aboriginal/innu_culture.html|archivedate=December 30, 2014|access-date=March 8, 2017|website=Innu Culture|publisher=Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland}}</ref> Fodd bynnag, o ddiwedd y [[18g]], anogodd Canadiaid Ewropeaidd bobloedd frodorol i gymathu i'w diwylliant nhw.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Asch|first=Michael|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9Uae4mTTyYYC&pg=PA28|title=Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference|publisher=UBC Press|year=1997|isbn=978-0-7748-0581-0|page=28}}</ref> Cyrhaeddodd yr ymdrechion hyn uchafbwynt ar ddiwedd y 19g a dechrau'r [[20fed ganrif|20g]] gydag integreiddio ac adleoli gorfodol.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Kirmayer|first=Laurence J.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AXYDxvx3zSAC&pg=PA9|title=Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada|last2=Guthrie|first2=Gail Valaskakis|publisher=UBC Press|year=2009|isbn=978-0-7748-5863-2|page=9}}</ref> Mae cyfnod o wneud iawn am yr anghyfiawnder hwn ar y gweill, a ddechreuodd gyda phenodiad Comisiwn Gwirionedd a Chysoni Canada gan Lywodraeth Canada yn 2008.<ref>{{Cite web|year=2015|title=Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action|url=http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/File/2015/Findings/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150615202024/http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/File/2015/Findings/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf|archivedate=June 15, 2015|access-date=July 9, 2016|publisher=National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation|page=5}}</ref>
 
=== Gwladychu Ewropeaidd ===
[[Delwedd:Nouvelle-France_map-en.svg|bawd| Map o hawliadau tiriogaethol yng [[Gogledd America|Ngogledd America]] erbyn 1750, cyn Rhyfel Ffrainc ac India, a oedd yn rhan o'r gwrthdaro byd-eang mwyaf a elwir yn [[Y Rhyfel Saith Mlynedd|Rhyfel y Saith Mlynedd]] (1756 i 1763). Meddiannau Prydain (pinc), Ffrainc Newydd (glas), a Sbaen (oren, ''California, Môr Tawel Gogledd Orllewin, a'r Basn Mawr heb eu nodi'' )]]
Credir mai'r Ewropeaidd cyntaf i archwilio'r arfordir dwyreiniol Canada oedd y fforiwr [[Llychlynwyr|Llychlynaidd]] [[Leif Eriksson|Leif Erikson]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Wallace|first=Birgitta|date=October 12, 2018|title=Leif Eriksson|url=https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/leif-ericsson|website=The Canadian Encyclopedia}}</ref><ref name="JohansenPritzker2007p727">{{Cite book|last=Johansen|first=Bruce E.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=sGKL6E9_J6IC&pg=PA727|title=Encyclopedia of American Indian History|last2=Pritzker|first2=Barry M.|publisher=ABC-CLIO|year=2007|isbn=978-1-85109-818-7|pages=727–728}}</ref> Tua 1000 OC, adeiladodd y Llychlynwyr wersyll bach a barodd ychydig flynyddoedd yn [[Dolydd L'Anse aux|L'Anse aux Meadows]] ar ben gogleddol [[Newfoundland a Labrador|Newfoundland]]. Ni chafwyd ymweliad Ewropeaidd pellach tan 1497, pan archwiliodd a hawliodd y morwr Eidalaidd [[Giovanni Caboto]] arfordir [[Môr yr Iwerydd]] Canada, yn enw Brenin [[Harri VII, brenin Lloegr|Harri VII o Loegr]].<ref name="BlakeKeshen2017p19">{{Cite book|last=Blake|first=Raymond B.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=z4kwDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA19|title=Conflict and Compromise: Pre-Confederation Canada|last2=Keshen|first2=Jeffrey|last3=Knowles|first3=Norman J.|last4=Messamore|first4=Barbara J.|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=2017|isbn=978-1-4426-3553-1|page=19}}</ref>
 
Yn 1534, archwiliodd y fforiwr Ffrengig Jacques Cartier [[Gwlff St Lawrence|Gwlff Saint Lawrence]] lle, ar Orffennaf 24, cododd groes 10 metr, croes a oedd yn dwyn y geiriau "''Long Live the France of France''" a chymryd meddiant o'r diriogaeth Ffrainc Newydd yn enw'r [[Ffransis I, brenin Ffrainc|Brenin Francis I.]] <ref>{{Cite book|last=Cartier|first=Jacques|url=https://archive.org/details/voyagesofjacques0000cart|title=The Voyages of Jacques Cartier|last2=Biggar|first2=Henry Percival|last3=Cook|first3=Ramsay|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1993|isbn=978-0-8020-6000-6|page=[https://archive.org/details/voyagesofjacques0000cart/page/n79 26]}}</ref> Yn gynnar yn yr [[16g]], sefydlodd morwyr Ewropeaidd gyda thechnegau mordwyo a arloeswyd gan y [[Basgiaid]] a'r [[Portiwgaliaid]] wrth hel [[Morfil|morfilod]] a physgota tymhorol ar hyd arfordir yr Iwerydd.<ref name="Kerr1987n">{{Cite book|last=Kerr|first=Donald Peter|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=itsTLSnw8qgC&pg=PA47|title=Historical Atlas of Canada: From the beginning to 1800|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1987|isbn=978-0-8020-2495-4|page=47}}</ref> Yn gyffredinol, ymddengys bod aneddiadau cynnar yn ystod [[Oes y Darganfod]] (Age of Discovery) wedi bod yn fyrhoedlog oherwydd cyfuniad o'r hinsawdd galed, problemau gyda llywio llwybrau masnach a blaengaredd Sgandinafia.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Baten|first=Jörg|title=A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present|date=2016|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-107-50718-0|page=84}}</ref><ref name="Wynn2007">{{Cite book|last=Wynn|first=Graeme|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=bxGFaFvo2oMC&pg=PA49|title=Canada and Arctic North America: An Environmental History|publisher=ABC-CLIO|year=2007|isbn=978-1-85109-437-0|page=49}}</ref>
 
=== Yr oes bresennol ===
Roedd argyfwng ariannol y Dirwasgiad Mawr wedi arwain Dominion Newfoundland i ildio llywodraeth gyfrifol ym 1934 a dod yn [[Trefedigaeth y Goron|Drefedigaeth y Goron]] a reolwyd gan lywodraethwr Prydeinig.<ref name="Buckner20082ed">{{Cite book|last=Alfred Buckner|first=Phillip|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KmXnLGX7FvEC&pg=PA135|title=Canada and the British Empire|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2008|isbn=978-0-19-927164-1|pages=135–138}}</ref> Ar ôl dau [[Refferenda Newfoundland 1948|refferendwm]], pleidleisiodd y Newfoundlandiaid i ymuno â Chanada ym 1949 fel talaith.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Boyer|first=J. Patrick|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CWGN-RZcqNoC&pg=PA119|title=Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums|publisher=Dundurn Press|year=1996|isbn=978-1-4597-1884-5|page=119}}</ref>
 
Arweiniodd twf economaidd Canada ar ôl y rhyfel, ynghyd â pholisïau llywodraethau Rhyddfrydol olynol, at ymddangosiad hunaniaeth newydd o Ganada, a nodwyd gan fabwysiadu [[Baner Canada|Baner y Fasarnen]] ym 1965,<ref>{{Cite book|last=Mackey|first=Eva|title=The house of difference: cultural politics and national identity in Canada|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=2002|isbn=978-0-8020-8481-1|page=57}}</ref> gweithredu dwyieithrwydd swyddogol (Saesneg a Ffrangeg ) ym 1969,<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Landry|first=Rodrigue|last2=Forgues|first2=Éric|date=May 2007|title=Official language minorities in Canada: an introduction|journal=International Journal of the Sociology of Language|volume=2007|issue=185|pages=1–9|doi=10.1515/IJSL.2007.022}}</ref> a sefydliad [[Amlddiwylliannaeth|amlddiwylliannedd swyddogol]] ym 1971.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Esses|first=Victoria M|last2=Gardner|first2=RC|date=July 1996|title=Multiculturalism in Canada: Context and current status|journal=[[Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science]]|volume=28|issue=3|pages=145–152|doi=10.1037/h0084934}}</ref> [[Democratiaeth gymdeithasol|Sefydlwyd rhaglenni cymdeithasol ddemocrataidd]] hefyd, megis [[Medicare (Canada)|Medicare]], Cynllun Pensiwn Canada, a Benthyciadau Myfyrwyr Canada, er bod llywodraethau taleithiol, yn enwedig Quebec ac Alberta, yn gwrthwynebu llawer o'r rhain.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Sarrouh|first=Elissar|date=January 22, 2002|title=Social Policies in Canada: A Model for Development|url=http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/sd-01-09.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100717075406/http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/sd-01-09.pdf|archivedate=July 17, 2010|website=Social Policy Series, No. 1|publisher=United Nations|pages=14–16, 22–37}}</ref>
[[Delwedd:Canadiancharterofrightsandfreedoms.jpg|alt=refer to caption|bawd| Copi o ''Siarter Hawliau a Rhyddidau Canada'']]
Yn olaf, arweiniodd cyfres arall o gynadleddau cyfansoddiadol at [[Deddf Canada 1982|Ddeddf Canada 1982]] y DU, cyfansoddiad Canada o'r Deyrnas Unedig, ar yr un pryd â chreu ''Siarter Hawliau a Rhyddid Canada.''<ref>{{Cite web|date=May 5, 2014|title=Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982|url=http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/politics-government/proclamation-constitution-act-1982/Pages/proclamation-constitution-act-1982.aspx|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170211083245/http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/politics-government/proclamation-constitution-act-1982/Pages/proclamation-constitution-act-1982.aspx|archivedate=February 11, 2017|publisher=Government of Canada|access-date=February 10, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=March 17, 2009|title=A statute worth 75 cheers|work=[[The Globe and Mail]]|url=https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/a-statute-worth-75-cheers/article1329730/|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170211081156/http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/a-statute-worth-75-cheers/article1329730/|archive-date=February 11, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Couture|first=Christa|date=January 1, 2017|title=Canada is celebrating 150 years of... what, exactly?|publisher=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|url=http://www.cbc.ca/2017/canada-is-celebrating-150-years-of-what-exactly-1.3883315|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170210001343/http://www.cbc.ca/2017/canada-is-celebrating-150-years-of-what-exactly-1.3883315|archive-date=February 10, 2017|access-date=February 10, 2017}}</ref> Sefydlodd Canada sofraniaeth lwyr fel gwlad annibynnol, er bod brenhines Lloegr yn cael ei chadw o ran enw'n unig.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Trepanier|first=Peter|year=2004|title=Some Visual Aspects of the Monarchical Tradition|url=http://www.revparl.ca/27/2/27n2_04e_trepanier.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304002130/http://www.revparl.ca/27/2/27n2_04e_trepanier.pdf|archivedate=March 4, 2016|access-date=February 10, 2017|website=[[Canadian Parliamentary Review]]}}</ref><ref name="bickerton">{{Cite book|title=Canadian Politics|publisher=[[Broadview Press]]|year=2004|isbn=978-1-55111-595-5|editor-last=Bickerton|editor-first=James|edition=4th|pages=250–254, 344–347|editor-last2=Gagnon|editor-first2=Alain}}</ref> Yn 1999, [[Nunavut|daeth Nunavut]] yn drydedd diriogaeth Canada ar ôl cyfres o drafodaethau gyda'r llywodraeth ffederal.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Légaré|first=André|year=2008|title=Canada's Experiment with Aboriginal Self-Determination in Nunavut: From Vision to Illusion|journal=International Journal on Minority and Group Rights|volume=15|issue=2–3|pages=335–367|doi=10.1163/157181108X332659|jstor=24674996}}</ref>
 
Yn 2011, cymerodd lluoedd Canada ran yn yr ymyrraeth dan arweiniad NATO yn [[Rhyfel Cartref Libia|Rhyfel Libya]], <ref name="HehirMurray2013">{{Cite book|last=Hehir|first=Aidan|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2TchAQAAQBAJ&pg=PT88|title=Libya, the Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention|last2=Murray|first2=Robert|publisher=[[Palgrave Macmillan]]|year=2013|isbn=978-1-137-27396-3|page=88}}</ref> a daethant hefyd yn rhan o frwydro yn erbyn [[Gwladwriaeth Islamaidd|gwrthryfel y Wladwriaeth Islamaidd]] yn [[Irac]] yng nghanol [[2010au]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Juneau|first=Thomas|year=2015|title=Canada's Policy to Confront the Islamic State|url=http://www.cgai.ca/canadas_policy_to_confront_the_islamic_state|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151211070017/http://www.cgai.ca/canadas_policy_to_confront_the_islamic_state|archivedate=December 11, 2015|access-date=December 10, 2015|publisher=[[Canadian Global Affairs Institute]]}}</ref> Dechreuodd [[Pandemig COVID-19|pandemig COVID-19 yng Nghanada]] ar Ionawr 27, 2020, gydag aflonyddwch cymdeithasol ac economaidd eang.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)|url=https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html|publisher=Government of Canada|year=2021}}</ref> Yn 2021, darganfuwyd gweddillion cannoedd o bobl frodorol ger hen safleoedd ysgolion preswyl Indiaidd Canada.<ref>{{Cite web|date=June 25, 2021|title=Catholic group to release all records from Marievel, Kamloops residential schools|url=https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/catholic-group-to-release-all-records-from-marievel-kamloops-residential-schools-1.5485691|access-date=June 25, 2021|website=CTVNews|language=en}}</ref> Roedd yr ysgolion hyn wedi eu rheoli gan Eglwys Gatholig Canada a'u hariannu gan lywodraeth Canada rhwng 1828 a 1997; ceisiodd yr ysgolion preswyl hyn gymhathu plant brodorol i ddiwylliant Ewro-Canada.<ref name="Canada2016">{{Cite book|last=Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada|title=Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 1, Origins to 1939: The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Volume I|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7gWQCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA3|date=1 January 2016|publisher=McGill-Queen's University Press|isbn=978-0-7735-9818-8|pages=3–7}}</ref>
 
== Daearyddiaeth ==
{{Rheolaeth awdurdod}}
[[Categori:Canada| ]]
[[Categori:Gwladwriaethau a thiriogaethau a sefydlwyd ym 1867]]
[[Categori:Aelod-wladwriaethau'r Cenhedloedd Unedig]]
[[Categori:Aelod-wladwriaethau NATO]]
[[Categori:Aelod-wladwriaethau'r Gymanwlad]]
[[Categori:Aelod-wladwriaethau'r G20]]
[[Categori:Gwledydd Gogledd America]]
[[Categori:Gwledydd a thiriogaethau Ffrangeg]]