Y gwahaniaeth rhwng diwygiadau o "Qalqilya"

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(Crewyd drwy gyfieithu'r dudalen "Qalqilya")
 
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{{Lle | gwlad={{banergwlad|Palesteina}}| ynganiad={{wikidata|property|P443}}}}
 
 
Dinas ym [[Palesteina|Mhalesteina]] yw '''Qalqilya''' neu '''Qalqiliya''' ({{Lang-ar|قلقيلية|Qalqīlyaḧ}}); sydd yn y [[Y Lan Orllewinol|Lan Orllewinol]]. Hi yw canolfan weinyddol Llywodraethiaeth (neu sir) Qalqilya. Yn y cyfrifiad swyddogol diweddaraf roedd gan y ddinas boblogaeth o {{wikidata|properties|qualifier|references|normal+|best|Q623159|P1082|P585}}. Mae Qalqilya wedi'i amgylchynu gan [[Mur Israelaidd y Lan Orllewinol|rwystr Banc Gorllewin Israel]] gyda bwlch cul yn y dwyrain a reolir gan fyddin Israel a thwnnel i Hableh.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Dani Filc and Hadas Ziv|title=Evil, Law and the State: Perspectives on State Power and Violence|editor-last=John Parry|chapter=Exception as the Norm and the Fiction of Sovereignty: The Lack of the Right to Health Care in the Occupied Territories|page=75|publisher=Editions Rodopi B.V.|year=2006|isbn=9789042017481}}</ref> Mae'r ddinas yn adnabyddus am ei horennau.
 
=== Yr Oes Otomanaidd ===
Ym 1596, ymddangosodd Qalqilya yn y cofrestrau treth [[Yr Ymerodraeth Otomanaidd|Otomanaidd]] (wedi'i drawslythrennu fel ''Qalqili'') fel pentref yn isranbarth Bani Sa'b yn ''Liwa'' Nablus. Roedd ganddi boblogaeth o 13 o aelwydydd Mwslimaidd ac roedd yn talu trethi ar [[Gwenith|wenith]], [[haidd]], cnydau haf, [[olewydd]], a [[Gafr|geifr]] neu [[Gwenynen fêl|gychod gwenyn]]; cyfanswm o 3,910 [[akçe]]. <ref>Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, ptud. 140</ref>
 
Yn 1838, nododd Robinson yr enw ''Kulakilieh'' fel pentref yn ''ardal Beni Sa'ab'', i'r gorllewin o Nablus.<ref>Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Appendix 2, p. [https://archive.org/stream/biblicalresearch03robiuoft#page/127/mode/1up 127]</ref>
Yn dilyn brwydr pentref Arabaidd cyfagos Kafr Saba, ffodd trigolion Qalqilya a dychwelyd yn ddiweddarach gyda dyfodiad y [[Lleng Arabaidd|Lleng Arabaidd o Waled yr Iorddonen,]] a llu alldeithiol [[Irac]], er mai dim ond tua 2,000 o drigolion a ddychwelodd. Roedd y rheini'n breswylwyr dosbarth uwch a symudodd i [[Nablus]]. Y prif reswm dros y gwahaniaeth oedd y sefyllfa economaidd anodd yn y dref rheng flaen a'r anallu i gael mynediad i'r cnydau.
 
=== Oes Gwlad yr Iorddonen ===
Atodwyd yr ardal gan Gwlad Iorddonen ym 1950. Ar 10 Hydref 1956 [[Llu Amddiffyn Israel|lansiodd byddin Israel]] gyrch yn erbyn gorsaf heddlu Qalqilya mewn ymateb i ymosodiad gan Wlad Iorddonen ar fws Israelaidd.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5--g7nJ9560C&pg=PA184|title=Arab-Israeli Conflict Transformed, The: Fifty Years of Interstate and Ethnic Crises|last=Ben-Yehuda|first=Hemda|last2=Sandler|first2=Shmuel|date=February 2012|publisher=SUNY Press|isbn=9780791489192|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jxH_DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA129|title=Dynamics of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Past and Present: Intellectual Odyssey II|last=Brecher|first=Michael|date=2017-02-03|publisher=Springer|isbn=9783319475752|language=en}}</ref> Gorchmynnwyd yr ymosodiad gan [[Moshe Dayan]] ac roedd yn cynnwys sawl mil o filwyr. Yn ystod yr ymladd amgylchynwyd cwmni o paratroopers Israel gan filwyr Gwlad Iorddonen. Lladdwyd deunaw o Israeliaid a rhwng 70 a 90 o Wlad Iorddonen yn yr ymosodiad gan. <ref>Morris, 1993, pp. 397–399.</ref>
 
[[Delwedd:2018_OCHA_OpT_map_Qalqilya.jpg|chwith|bawd| Map [[y Cenhedloedd Unedig]] 2018 o'r ardal, yn dangos trefniadau [[Galwedigaeth Israel ar y Lan Orllewinol|meddiannaeth Israel.]]]]
Ers y [[Rhyfel Chwe Diwrnod]] ym 1967, mae Qalqilya wedi bod dan [[Galwedigaeth Israel ar y Lan Orllewinol|feddiant Israel]]. Yn ddiweddarach y flwyddyn honno, cafodd dwsinau o'i thrigolion eu troi allan gan Israel a'u danfon i Wlad Iorddonen, a dymchwelwyd o leiaf 850 o adeiladau gan fyddin Israel.<ref>[[Nur-eldeen Masalha|Masalha]], 2007, [https://web.archive.org/web/20070518092450/http://www.shaml.org/publications/news/news7.htm 1967: Why Did the Palestinians Leave?]</ref> Yn ei atgofion, disgrifiodd Moshe Dayan y dinistr fel "cosb" a fwriadwyd i hel y trigolion i ffwrdd, yn groes i bolisi'r llywodraeth.<ref>{{Harvard citation no brackets|Morris|2001|p=328}}</ref><ref>{{Harvard citation no brackets|Elon|1983}}</ref> Ym Medi 1967 roedd 8,922 o bobl yma, gyda 1,837 ohonynt yn dod yn wreiddiol o diriogaeth Israel.<ref>Joel Perlmann. </ref>
[[Delwedd:Jit,_Qalqilya_01.jpg|bawd| Jit, tref PalestinaPalesteina yn Qalqilya]]
Fel rhan o [[Cytundebau Oslo|Gytundebau Oslo]] 1993 rhwng Israel a [[Mudiad Rhyddid Palesteina|Sefydliad Rhyddhad Palestina]] (PLO), trosglwyddwyd rheolaeth ar Qalqilya i [[Awdurdod Cenedlaethol Palesteina|Awdurdod Cenedlaethol Palestina]] (PNA) ar 17 Rhagfyr 1995.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Mattar|first=Phillip|title=Encyclopedia of the Palestinians|date=2005|publisher=Infobase Publishing|page=250|isbn=9780816069866|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=GkbzYoZtaJMC&q=Qalqiliya&pg=PA684}}</ref>
 
 
== Cyfeiriadau ==
{{cyfeiriadau}}
 
 
== Llyfryddiaeth ==
{{Refbegin}}
*{{cite book | editor =Barron, J.B. | title = Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922 |url=https://archive.org/details/PalestineCensus1922 |publisher = Government of Palestine | year = 1923}}
*{{cite book|last1=Conder|first1=C.R.|author-link1=Claude Reignier Conder|last2=Kitchener|first2=H.H.|author-link2=Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener|year=1882|url=https://archive.org/details/surveyofwesternp02conduoft|title=The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology|location=London|publisher=[[Palestine Exploration Fund|Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund]]|volume=2}}
*{{cite book|title=The Israelis: founders and sons|url=https://archive.org/details/israelisfounder000elon|url-access=registration|last=Elon|first=A.|author-link=Amos Elon|publisher=Penguin Books|year=1983|isbn=978-0-14-016969-0}}
*{{cite book | title = First Census of Population and Housing. Volume I: Final Tables; General Characteristics of the Population | author = Government of Jordan, Department of Statistics | year = 1964|url=http://cs.anu.edu.au/~bdm/yabber/census/JordanCensus1961bits.pdf}}
*{{cite book|title=Village Statistics, April, 1945 |url=http://web.nli.org.il/sites/nli/Hebrew/library/Pages/BookReader.aspx?pid=856390|author=Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics|year=1945}}
*{{cite book|last=Guérin|first=V.|author-link=Victor Guérin|title=Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine|url=https://archive.org/details/descriptiongogr04gugoog|volume=2: Samarie, pt. 2|year=1875|publisher= L'Imprimerie Nationale|location=Paris|language=fr}}
*{{cite book|title=Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine|url=http://www.palestineremembered.com/Articles/General-2/Story3150.html|first=S.|last=Hadawi|author-link=Sami Hadawi|year=1970|publisher=Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center}}
*{{cite book | last1= Hütteroth |first1=Wolf-Dieter |first2=Kamal | last2=Abdulfattah | title = Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=wqULAAAAIAAJ | year = 1977 | publisher = Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft|isbn= 3-920405-41-2}}
*{{cite book | editor = Mills, E. | title = Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas |url=https://archive.org/details/CensusOfPalestine1931.PopulationOfVillagesTownsAndAdministrativeAreas | publisher = Government of Palestine | location = Jerusalem | year = 1932}}
*{{cite book|last=Morris |first=B.|author-link=Benny Morris|year=1993|title= Israel's Border Wars, 1949 – 1956. Arab Infiltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdown to the Suez War. |publisher=Oxford University Press| isbn= 0-19-827850-0}}
*{{cite book|title=Righteous victims: a history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-2001|last=Morris|first=B.|author-link=Benny Morris|year=2001|publisher=Vintage Books|isbn=978-0-679-74475-7|url-access=registration|url=https://archive.org/details/righteousvictims00morr_0}}
*{{cite book|last=Palmer|first=E.H.|author-link=Edward Henry Palmer|year=1881|url=https://archive.org/details/surveyofwesternp00conduoft|title=The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer|publisher=[[Palestine Exploration Fund|Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund]]}}
*{{cite book|last1=Robinson|first1=E.|author-link1=Edward Robinson (scholar)|last2=Smith|first2=E.|author-link2=Eli Smith|year=1841|url=https://archive.org/details/biblicalresearch03robiuoft |title=Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838| location=Boston|publisher=[[Crocker & Brewster]]|volume=3}}
{{Refend}}
 
==Dolenni allanol==
*[http://www.palestineremembered.com/GeoPoints/Qalqiliya_1475/index.html Welcome To The City of Qalqiliya]
*[https://www.welcometopalestine.com/destinations/qalqilya/qalqilya-city/ Qalqilya City], Welcome to Palestine
*[http://vprofile.arij.org/qalqiliya/pdfs/factsheet/qalqiliyacity_fs_en.pdf Qalqiliya City (Fact Sheet)], [[Applied Research Institute–Jerusalem]], (ARIJ)
*[http://vprofile.arij.org/qalqiliya/pdfs/vprofile/Qalqiliya_vp_en.pdf Qalqiliya City Profile], ARIJ
*[http://vprofile.arij.org/qalqiliya/images/english/Qalqiliya_ap_en.jpg Qalqiliya arial photo], ARIJ
*[http://vprofile.arij.org/qalqiliya/pdfs/needsfordevelopment/qalqiliya_n_en.pdf Development Priorities and Needs in Qalqiliya], ARIJ
*Survey of Western Palestine, Map 11: [http://www.iaa-archives.org.il/zoom/zoom.aspx?folder_id=93&type_id=6&id=8373 IAA], [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Survey_of_Western_Palestine_1880.11.jpg Wikimedia commons]
*{{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080414210538/http://www.un.org/unrwa/emergency/barrier/profiles/qalqilya.html |date=April 14, 2008 |title=UNRWA Profile: Qalqilya Town Update 2004 }}
 
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