Y gwahaniaeth rhwng diwygiadau o "Canada"

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O'r [[16eg]] i ddechrau'r [[18g]] cyfeiriodd "Canada " at y rhan o [[Ffrainc Newydd]] ([[:en:New_France|''New France'']]) a orweddai ar hyd Afon Saint Lawrence.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Magocsi|first=Paul R.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dbUuX0mnvQMC&pg=PA1048|title=Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1999|isbn=978-0-8020-2938-6|page=1048}}</ref> Yn 1791, daeth yr ardal yn ddwy wladfa Brydeinig o'r enw Canada Uchaf a Chanada Isaf gyda'i gilydd fe'u galwyd yn Canadas, tan iddyn nhw gael eu huno fel Talaith Brydeinig Canada ym 1841.<ref>{{Cite web|year=1841|title=An Act to Re-write the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for the Government of Canada|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BCQtAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA20|publisher=J.C. Fisher & W. Kimble|page=20}}</ref>
 
Ar ôl y Cydffederasiwn ym 1867, ''mabwysiadwyd Canada'' fel yr enw cyfreithiol ar y wlad newydd yng Nghynhadledd Llundain, a rhoddwyd y gair ''[[Dominiwn|Dominion]]'' fel teitl i'r wlad.<ref>{{Cite book|last=O'Toole|first=Roger|title=Holy Nations and Global Identities: Civil Religion, Nationalism, and Globalisation|url=https://archive.org/details/holynationsgloba00hvit|publisher=Brill|year=2009|isbn=978-90-04-17828-1|editor-last=Hvithamar|editor-first=Annika|page=[https://archive.org/details/holynationsgloba00hvit/page/137 137]|chapter=Dominion of the Gods: Religious continuity and change in a Canadian context|editor-last2=Warburg|editor-first2=Margit|editor-last3=Jacobsen|editor-first3=Brian Arly}}</ref> Erbyn y [[1950au]], nid oedd y term 'Dominion of Canada' bellach yn cael ei ddefnyddio gan y Deyrnas Unedig, a oedd yn ystyried Canada yn "Deyrnas y Gymanwlad".<ref name="Morra2016">{{Cite book|last=Morra|first=Irene|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=enJ1DQAAQBAJ&pg=PT49|title=The New Elizabethan Age: Culture, Society and National Identity after World War II|publisher=I.B.Tauris|year=2016|isbn=978-0-85772-867-8|page=49}}</ref> Daeth llywodraeth [[Louis St. Laurent]] i ben â'r arfer o ddefnyddio ''Dominion'' yn statudau Canada ym 1951.<ref>{{Cite web|title=November 8, 1951 (21st Parliament, 5th Session)|url=https://www.lipad.ca/full/permalink/1661272/|access-date=April 9, 2019|website=Canadian Hansard Dataset}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Bowden|first=J.W.J.|year=2015|title='Dominion': A Lament|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319533946|journal=The Dorchester Review|volume=5|issue=2|pages=58–64}}</ref>
 
Yn 1982, cyfeiriodd hynt Deddf Canada, gan ddod â Chyfansoddiad Canada yn llwyr o dan reolaeth Canada, at ''Ganada yn'' unig, tra yn ddiweddarach y flwyddyn honno newidiwyd enw'r gwyliau cenedlaethol o Ddiwrnod Dominion i [[Diwrnod Canada|Ddiwrnod Canada]].<ref name="buckner">{{Cite book|title=Canada and the British Empire|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|year=2008|isbn=978-0-19-927164-1|editor-last=Buckner|editor-first=Philip|pages=37–40, 56–59, 114, 124–125}}</ref> Defnyddiwyd y term ''Dominion'' i wahaniaethu rhwng y llywodraeth ffederal a'r taleithiau, ond ar ôl [[yr Ail Ryfel Byd]] roedd y term ''ffederal'' wedi ei ddisodli ''dominion''.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Courtney|first=John|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5KomEXgxvMcC&pg=PA114|title=The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics|last2=Smith|first2=David|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2010|isbn=978-0-19-533535-4|page=114}}</ref>
Roedd argyfwng ariannol y Dirwasgiad Mawr wedi arwain Dominion Newfoundland i ildio llywodraeth gyfrifol ym 1934 a dod yn [[Trefedigaeth y Goron|Drefedigaeth y Goron]] a reolwyd gan lywodraethwr Prydeinig.<ref name="Buckner20082ed">{{Cite book|last=Alfred Buckner|first=Phillip|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KmXnLGX7FvEC&pg=PA135|title=Canada and the British Empire|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2008|isbn=978-0-19-927164-1|pages=135–138}}</ref> Ar ôl dau [[Refferenda Newfoundland 1948|refferendwm]], pleidleisiodd y Newfoundlandiaid i ymuno â Chanada ym 1949 fel talaith.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Boyer|first=J. Patrick|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CWGN-RZcqNoC&pg=PA119|title=Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums|publisher=Dundurn Press|year=1996|isbn=978-1-4597-1884-5|page=119}}</ref>
 
Arweiniodd twf economaidd Canada ar ôl y rhyfel, ynghyd â pholisïau llywodraethau Rhyddfrydol olynol, at ymddangosiad hunaniaeth newydd o Ganada, a nodwyd gan fabwysiadu [[Baner Canada|Baner y Fasarnen]] ym 1965,<ref>{{Cite book|last=Mackey|first=Eva|title=The house of difference: cultural politics and national identity in Canada|url=https://archive.org/details/houseofdifferenc0000mack|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=2002|isbn=978-0-8020-8481-1|page=[https://archive.org/details/houseofdifferenc0000mack/page/57 57]}}</ref> gweithredu dwyieithrwydd swyddogol (Saesneg a Ffrangeg ) ym 1969,<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Landry|first=Rodrigue|last2=Forgues|first2=Éric|date=May 2007|title=Official language minorities in Canada: an introduction|journal=International Journal of the Sociology of Language|volume=2007|issue=185|pages=1–9|doi=10.1515/IJSL.2007.022}}</ref> a sefydliad [[Amlddiwylliannaeth|amlddiwylliannedd swyddogol]] ym 1971.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Esses|first=Victoria M|last2=Gardner|first2=RC|date=July 1996|title=Multiculturalism in Canada: Context and current status|journal=[[Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science]]|volume=28|issue=3|pages=145–152|doi=10.1037/h0084934}}</ref> [[Democratiaeth gymdeithasol|Sefydlwyd rhaglenni cymdeithasol ddemocrataidd]] hefyd, megis [[Medicare (Canada)|Medicare]], Cynllun Pensiwn Canada, a Benthyciadau Myfyrwyr Canada, er bod llywodraethau taleithiol, yn enwedig Quebec ac Alberta, yn gwrthwynebu llawer o'r rhain.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Sarrouh|first=Elissar|date=January 22, 2002|title=Social Policies in Canada: A Model for Development|url=http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/sd-01-09.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100717075406/http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/sd-01-09.pdf|archivedate=July 17, 2010|website=Social Policy Series, No. 1|publisher=United Nations|pages=14–16, 22–37}}</ref>
[[Delwedd:Canadiancharterofrightsandfreedoms.jpg|alt=refer to caption|bawd| Copi o ''Siarter Hawliau a Rhyddidau Canada'']]
Yn olaf, arweiniodd cyfres arall o gynadleddau cyfansoddiadol at [[Deddf Canada 1982|Ddeddf Canada 1982]] y DU, cyfansoddiad Canada o'r Deyrnas Unedig, ar yr un pryd â chreu ''Siarter Hawliau a Rhyddid Canada.''<ref>{{Cite web|date=May 5, 2014|title=Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982|url=http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/politics-government/proclamation-constitution-act-1982/Pages/proclamation-constitution-act-1982.aspx|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170211083245/http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/politics-government/proclamation-constitution-act-1982/Pages/proclamation-constitution-act-1982.aspx|archivedate=February 11, 2017|publisher=Government of Canada|access-date=February 10, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=March 17, 2009|title=A statute worth 75 cheers|work=[[The Globe and Mail]]|url=https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/a-statute-worth-75-cheers/article1329730/|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170211081156/http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/a-statute-worth-75-cheers/article1329730/|archive-date=February 11, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Couture|first=Christa|date=January 1, 2017|title=Canada is celebrating 150 years of... what, exactly?|publisher=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|url=http://www.cbc.ca/2017/canada-is-celebrating-150-years-of-what-exactly-1.3883315|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170210001343/http://www.cbc.ca/2017/canada-is-celebrating-150-years-of-what-exactly-1.3883315|archive-date=February 10, 2017|access-date=February 10, 2017}}</ref> Sefydlodd Canada sofraniaeth lwyr fel gwlad annibynnol, er bod brenhines Lloegr yn cael ei chadw o ran enw'n unig.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Trepanier|first=Peter|year=2004|title=Some Visual Aspects of the Monarchical Tradition|url=http://www.revparl.ca/27/2/27n2_04e_trepanier.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304002130/http://www.revparl.ca/27/2/27n2_04e_trepanier.pdf|archivedate=March 4, 2016|access-date=February 10, 2017|website=[[Canadian Parliamentary Review]]}}</ref><ref name="bickerton">{{Cite book|title=Canadian Politics|url=https://archive.org/details/canadianpolitics0000unse_n9l0|publisher=[[Broadview Press]]|year=2004|isbn=978-1-55111-595-5|editor-last=Bickerton|editor-first=James|edition=4th|pages=250–254[https://archive.org/details/canadianpolitics0000unse_n9l0/page/250 250]–254, 344–347|editor-last2=Gagnon|editor-first2=Alain}}</ref> Yn 1999, [[Nunavut|daeth Nunavut]] yn drydedd diriogaeth Canada ar ôl cyfres o drafodaethau gyda'r llywodraeth ffederal.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Légaré|first=André|year=2008|title=Canada's Experiment with Aboriginal Self-Determination in Nunavut: From Vision to Illusion|journal=International Journal on Minority and Group Rights|volume=15|issue=2–3|pages=335–367|doi=10.1163/157181108X332659|jstor=24674996}}</ref>
 
Yn 2011, cymerodd lluoedd Canada ran yn yr ymyrraeth dan arweiniad NATO yn [[Rhyfel Cartref Libia|Rhyfel Libya]], <ref name="HehirMurray2013">{{Cite book|last=Hehir|first=Aidan|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2TchAQAAQBAJ&pg=PT88|title=Libya, the Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention|last2=Murray|first2=Robert|publisher=[[Palgrave Macmillan]]|year=2013|isbn=978-1-137-27396-3|page=88}}</ref> a daethant hefyd yn rhan o frwydro yn erbyn [[Gwladwriaeth Islamaidd|gwrthryfel y Wladwriaeth Islamaidd]] yn [[Irac]] yng nghanol [[2010au]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Juneau|first=Thomas|year=2015|title=Canada's Policy to Confront the Islamic State|url=http://www.cgai.ca/canadas_policy_to_confront_the_islamic_state|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151211070017/http://www.cgai.ca/canadas_policy_to_confront_the_islamic_state|archivedate=December 11, 2015|access-date=December 10, 2015|publisher=[[Canadian Global Affairs Institute]]}}</ref> Dechreuodd [[Pandemig COVID-19|pandemig COVID-19 yng Nghanada]] ar Ionawr 27, 2020, gydag aflonyddwch cymdeithasol ac economaidd eang.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)|url=https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html|publisher=Government of Canada|year=2021}}</ref> Yn 2021, darganfuwyd gweddillion cannoedd o bobl frodorol ger hen safleoedd ysgolion preswyl Indiaidd Canada.<ref>{{Cite web|date=June 25, 2021|title=Catholic group to release all records from Marievel, Kamloops residential schools|url=https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/catholic-group-to-release-all-records-from-marievel-kamloops-residential-schools-1.5485691|access-date=June 25, 2021|website=CTVNews|language=en}}</ref> Roedd yr ysgolion hyn wedi eu rheoli gan Eglwys Gatholig Canada a'u hariannu gan lywodraeth Canada rhwng 1828 a 1997; ceisiodd yr ysgolion preswyl hyn gymhathu plant brodorol i ddiwylliant Ewro-Canada.<ref name="Canada2016">{{Cite book|last=Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada|title=Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 1, Origins to 1939: The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Volume I|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7gWQCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA3|date=1 January 2016|publisher=McGill-Queen's University Press|isbn=978-0-7735-9818-8|pages=3–7}}</ref>