Y gwahaniaeth rhwng diwygiadau o "Hindŵaeth"

Lleihawyd o 504 beit ,  4 mis yn ôl
Misoedd cyfeiriadaeth, replaced: January → Ionawr (6), February → Chwefror (6), March → Mawrth , may → Mai (6), June → Mehefin (3), July → Gorffennaf (13), August → Awst (3), Septem using AWB
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(Misoedd cyfeiriadaeth, replaced: January → Ionawr (6), February → Chwefror (6), March → Mawrth , may → Mai (6), June → Mehefin (3), July → Gorffennaf (13), August → Awst (3), Septem using AWB)
[[File:Holi Festival of Colors Utah, United States 2013.jpg|bawd|310px|chwith|Dathlu 'Holi' yn Nheml Sri Radha Krishna Utah, [[Utah]], UDA (2013)]]
 
Mae'r gair ''Hindŵ'' yn tarddu o'r gair [[Sansgrit]] ''Sindhu''{{sfn|Flood|1996|p=6}}{{sfn|Parpola|2015|loc="Chapter 1"}} sef yr [[Afon Indus]].{{Efn|{{sfn|Siemens|Roodt|2009|p=546}}{{sfn|Leaf|2014|p=36}}{{refn|group=note|name="Hindu_term"}}}} Tra bod Hindŵaeth wedi cael ei alw'n grefydd hyna'r byd,[note 4] mae llawer o ymarferwyr yn cyfeirio at eu crefydd fel Sanātana Dharma ({{lang-sa|सनातन धर्म|lit='the Eternal Dharma'}}; y Dharma Tragwyddol), sy'n cyfeirio at y syniad bod ei darddiad y tu hwnt i hanes dyn, fel sy'n cael ei ddatgan yn y testunau Hindŵaidd.{{Efn|{{sfn|Knott|1998|pp=3, 5}}{{sfn|Hatcher|2015|pp=4–5, 69–71, 150–152}}{{sfn|Bowker|2000}}{{sfn|Harvey|2001|p=xiii}}{{refn|group=note|name="Knott_sanatana dharma"}}}} Hunan-ddynodiad arall, er yn llai ffit,<ref name="SmithBK1998">{{Cite journal|last=Smith|first=Brian K.|title=Questioning Authority: Constructions and Deconstructions of Hinduism|journal=International Journal of Hindu Studies|volume=2|issue=3|pages=313–339|year=1998|doi=10.1007/s11407-998-0001-9|jstor=20106612}}</ref> yw ''[[Hindŵaeth|Vaidika dharma]]'', y 'dharma sy'n gysylltiedig â'r [[Veda]].'<ref>{{Cite web|title=View Dictionary|url=https://sanskritdictionary.com/scans/?col=1&img=mw1022.jpg|access-date=2021-11-19|website=sanskritdictionary.com}}</ref>
 
Mae Hindŵaeth yn system o feddwl amrywiol iawn, gydag athroniaethau a chysyniadau sy'n gyffredin i lawer o wledydd, [[Defod|defodaudefod]]au, systemau cosmolegol, safleoedd pererindod, ffynonellau testunol, [[metaffiseg]], mytholeg, yajna Vedig, [[ioga]], defodau agamic, ac adeiladu temlau, ymhlith pynciau eraill.{{Sfn|Michaels|2004}} Ymhlith y themâu amlwg yng nghredoau Hindŵaidd mae pedwar Puruṣārthas, nodau neu nodau priodol bywyd dynol; sef, dharma (moeseg / dyletswyddau), artha (ffyniant / gwaith), kama (dymuniadau / nwydau) a moksha (rhyddhad / rhyddid rhag y nwydau a chylch marwolaeth ac aileni),<ref name="Bilimoria 2007 p. 103">{{Harvard citation no brackets|Bilimoria|2007}}; see also {{Harvard citation no brackets|Koller|1968}}.</ref>{{Sfn|Flood|1997}} yn ogystal â [[karma]] (gweithredu, bwriad a chanlyniadau) a [[Samsara|saṃsāra]] (cylch marwolaeth ac aileni).{{Sfn|Klostermaier|2007|pages=46–52, 76–77}}{{Sfn|Brodd|2003}} Mae Hindŵaeth yn pwysleisio dyletswyddau tragwyddol, fel gonestrwydd, ymatal rhag anafu bodau byw (''Ahiṃsā''), amynedd, goddefgarwch, hunan-ataliaeth, rhinwedd a thosturi ac eraill.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Dharma|first=Samanya|title=History of Dharmasastra|last2=Kane|first2=P. V.|volume=2|pages=4–5}} See also {{Harvard citation no brackets|Widgery|1930}}</ref> Mae arferion Hindŵaidd yn cynnwys defodau fel puja (addoli) a datganiadau, japa, myfyrdod ([[Dhyana mewn Hindŵaeth|dhyāna]]), defodau newid byd (''rites of passage'') sy'n deulu-ganolog, gwyliau blynyddol, ac ambell bererindod. Ynghyd ag arferion amrywiol fel [[ioga]], mae rhai [[Hindwiaid]] yn gadael eu byd cymdeithasol a'u heiddo materol ac yn cymryd rhan mewn Sannyasa (mynachaeth) gydol oes er mwyn cyflawni moksha.<ref name="ellinger70">{{Cite book|last=Ellinger|first=Herbert|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pk3iAwAAQBAJ|title=Hinduism|publisher=Bloomsbury Academic|year=1996|isbn=978-1-56338-161-4|pages=69–70}}</ref>
 
Mae testunau Hindŵaidd yn cael eu dosbarthu i ddau grwp: Śruti ("clywed") a Smṛti ("cofio"), ''a'u prif ysgrythurau yw'r [[Veda]]'', yr ''[[Upanishadau|Upanishads]]'', y ''Purānas'', y ''[[Mahabharata|Mahābhārata]]'', y ''[[Ramayana|Rāmāyana]]'', a'r ''Āgamas''.{{Sfn|Klostermaier|2007}}<ref>{{Cite book|last=Zaehner|first=R. C.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=eWuezQEACAAJ|title=Hindu Scriptures|publisher=[[Penguin Random House]]|year=1992|isbn=978-0-679-41078-2|pages=1–7|author-link=Robert Charles Zaehner}}</ref> Ceir chwe ysgol athroniaeth Hindŵ a elwir yn āstika, sy'n cydnabod awdurdod y Vedas, sef Sānkhya, Ioga, Nyāya, Vaisheshika, Mimāmsā a Vedanta .<ref name="Matthew Clarke 2011 28">{{Cite book|last=Clarke|first=Matthew|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=DIvHQc0-rwgC&pg=PA28|title=Development and Religion: Theology and Practice|publisher=Edward Elgar Publishing|year=2011|isbn=978-0-85793-073-6|page=28|access-date=11 FebruaryChwefror 2015}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|editor-last=Holberg|editor-first=Dale|title=Students' Britannica India|year=2000|volume=4|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica India|isbn=978-0-85229-760-5|page=316}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Nicholson|first=Andrew|title=Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History|publisher=Columbia University Press|year=2013|isbn=978-0-231-14987-7|pages=2–5}}</ref> Mae'r gronoleg Puranig yn cyflwyno achau o filoedd o flynyddoedd, gan ddechrau gyda'r ''rishis'' Vedig, ond mae ysgolheigion yn ystyried Hindŵaeth fel ymasiad{{refn|group=note|name="Lockard-fusion"}} neu synthesis{{sfn|Samuel|2008|p=193}}{{refn|group=note|name="Hiltebeitel-synthesis"}} o orthopraxy Brahmanaidd<nowiki><sup typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw="{&amp;quot;parts&amp;quot;:[{&amp;quot;template&amp;quot;:{&amp;quot;target&amp;quot;:{&amp;quot;wt&amp;quot;:&amp;quot;refn&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;href&amp;quot;:&amp;quot;./Template:Refn&amp;quot;},&amp;quot;params&amp;quot;:{&amp;quot;group&amp;quot;:{&amp;quot;wt&amp;quot;:&amp;quot;note&amp;quot;},&amp;quot;name&amp;quot;:{&amp;quot;wt&amp;quot;:&amp;quot;\&amp;quot;Brahmanism\&amp;quot;&amp;quot;}},&amp;quot;i&amp;quot;:0}}]}" id="cite_ref-Brahmanism_42-0"></sup> gyda diwylliannau Indiaidd amrywiol,<ref name="various cultures">{{Harvard citation no brackets|Hiltebeitel|2007}}; {{Harvard citation no brackets|Flood|1996}}; {{Harvard citation no brackets|Lockard|2007}}</ref>{{refn|group=note|name="fusion"}} â gwreiddiau amrywiol {{Sfn|Narayanan|2009}}{{refn|group=note|name="roots"}} a dim sylfaenydd penodol.{{Sfn|Fowler|1997}} Daeth y synthesis Hindŵaidd hwn i'r amlwg ar ôl y cyfnod Vedic, rhwng c. 500{{Sfn|Hiltebeitel|2007}} –200{{Sfn|Larson|2009}} BCE ac c. 300 CE,{{Sfn|Hiltebeitel|2007}} yng nghyfnod yr [[Hanes India|Ail Drefoli]] a chyfnod clasurol cynnar Hindŵaeth, pan gyfansoddwyd yr Epics a'r Purānas cyntaf.{{Sfn|Hiltebeitel|2007}}{{Sfn|Larson|2009}} Ffynnodd yn y cyfnod canoloesol, gyda dirywiad Bwdhaeth yn India.{{Sfn|Larson|1995}}
 
Ar hyn o bryd, y pedwar enwad mwyaf o fewn Hindŵaeth yw Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism a Smartism.{{Sfn|Tattwananda|n.d.}}{{Sfn|Lipner|2009}} Mae ffynonellau awdurdod a gwirioneddau tragwyddol yn y testunau Hindŵaidd yn chwarae rhan bwysig, ond ceir traddodiad Hindŵaidd cryf hefyd o gwestiynu awdurdod er mwyn dyfnhau dealltwriaeth o'r gwirioneddau hyn a datblygu'r traddodiad ymhellach.<ref name="frazierintrop2">{{Cite book|last=Frazier|first=Jessica|url=https://archive.org/details/continuumcompani00fraz|title=The Continuum companion to Hindu studies|date=2011|publisher=Continuum|isbn=978-0-8264-9966-0|location=London|pages=[https://archive.org/details/continuumcompani00fraz/page/n15 1]–15}}</ref> Hindŵaeth yw'r ffydd a broffesir fwyaf eang yn India, Nepal a Mauritius. Mae nifer sylweddol o gymunedau Hindŵaidd i'w cael yn [[Hindŵaeth yn Ne-ddwyrain Asia|Ne-ddwyrain Asia]] gan gynnwys yn [[Bali]], [[Indonesia]],<ref>{{Cite web|title=Peringatan|url=https://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/page/warning|website=sp2010.bps.go.id}}</ref> y [[Y Caribî|Caribî]], [[Gogledd America]], Ewrop, Oceania, Affrica, a rhanbarthau eraill . <ref>{{Cite book|last=Vertovec|first=Steven|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FRVTAQAAQBAJ|title=The Hindu Diaspora: Comparative Patterns|publisher=Routledge|year=2013|isbn=978-1-136-36705-2|pages=1–4, 7–8, 63–64, 87–88, 141–143}}</ref>
 
== Diffiniadau ==
Mae Hindŵaeth yn cynnwys amrywiaeth o syniadau ar [[ysbrydolrwydd]] a thraddodiadau, ond nid oes ganddo drefn eglwysig, dim awdurdod crefyddol diamheuol, dim corff llywodraethu, dim proffwyd/i nac unrhyw lyfr sanctaidd penodol. Gall Hindwiaid ddewis bod yn [[Amldduwiaeth|amldduwiol]], [[Pantheistiaeth|pantheistig]], panentheistig, pandeistig, henotheistig, [[Undduwiaeth|monotheistig]], monistig, [[Agnosticiaeth|agnostig]], [[Anffyddiaeth|anffyddiol]] neu [[Dyneiddiaeth|ddyneiddiol]].<ref name="Lipner2009p8">{{Harvard citation no brackets|Lipner|2009}} Quote: "[...] one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One mayMai be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic,henotheistic, panentheistic ,pandeistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."</ref><ref>{{Cite book|title=Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict|publisher=Academic Press|year=2008|isbn=978-0-12-369503-1|editor-last=Kurtz|editor-first=Lester}}</ref><ref>MK Gandhi, ''[http://www.mkgandhi.org/ebks/essence_of_hinduism.pdf The Essence of Hinduism] {{Webarchive}}'', Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see page 3; According to Gandhi, "a man mayMai not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu."</ref> Yn ôl Doniger, "mae syniadau am holl brif faterion ffydd a ffordd o fyw - llysieuaeth, di-drais, cred mewn aileni, hyd yn oed [[Y drefn gastiau yn India|cast]] - yn destunau dadl, ac nid [[dogma]]."{{Sfn|Doniger|2014}}
 
Oherwydd yr ystod eang o draddodiadau a syniadau a gwmpesir gan y term Hindŵaeth, mae'n anodd dod o hyd i ddiffiniad cynhwysfawr.{{Sfn|Flood|1996|p=6}} Mae'r grefydd "yn gwadu ein hawydd i'w diffinio a'i chategoreiddio".{{Sfn|Knott|1998|p=117}} Diffiniwyd Hindŵaeth yn amrywiol fel crefydd, fel traddodiad crefyddol, ac fel set o gredoau crefyddol, ac fel "ffordd o fyw".{{Sfn|Sharma|2003}}{{refn|group=note|name="definition"}} O safbwynt geirfa'r Gorllewin, cyfeirir at Hindŵaeth fel 'crefydd', ond yn India, caiff ei diffionio'n amlach fel ''dharma'', sy'n ehangach na ''chrefydd'' y Gorllewin.<ref>{{Harvard citation no brackets|Radhakrishnan|Moore|1967|p=3}}; {{Harvard citation no brackets|Witzel|2003|p=68}}</ref>
=== Amrywiaeth ===
[[Delwedd:Ganapati.1..JPG|bawd| [[Ganesha]] yw un o'r duwiau mwyaf adnabyddus a mwyaf addoledig yn y pantheon Hindŵaidd.]]
Mae credoau Hindŵaidd yn helaeth ac yn amrywiol iawn, ac felly cyfeirir at Hindŵaeth yn aml fel teulu o grefyddau yn hytrach nag un grefydd.<ref group="web">{{Cite web|title=Hinduism|url=https://www.history.com/topics/religion/hinduism|access-date=2020-04-23|website=HISTORY|archivedate=29 December 2020|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20201229174138/https://www.history.com/topics/religion/hinduism}}</ref> O fewn pob crefydd yn y teulu hwn o grefyddau, mae yna wahanol ddiwinyddiaeth, arferion, a thestunau cysegredig.<ref group="web">{{Cite web|title=Basics of Hinduism|publisher=Kauai's Hindu Monastery|url=https://www.himalayanacademy.com/readlearn/basics/fourteen-questions/|access-date=2020-04-23|archivedate=29 December 2020|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20201229174156/https://www.himalayanacademy.com/readlearn/basics/fourteen-questions/}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Dasgupta|first=Surendranath|title=A history of Indian philosophy (part 1)|last2=Banarsidass|first2=Motilall|year=1992|page=70}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Chande|first=M.B.|title=Indian Philosophy in Modern Times|publisher=Atlantic Publishers & Dist.|year=2000|page=277}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Culp|first=John|date=2008-12-04|title=Panentheism|url=https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2017/entries/panentheism/|access-date=29 December 2020|archive-date=29 December 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201229174122/https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2017/entries/panentheism/}}</ref><ref group="web">{{Cite web|date=2004-06-15|title=Is Hinduism monotheistic?|website=The Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies|url=https://ochs.org.uk/news/hinduism-monotheistic|access-date=2020-04-23|archivedate=29 December 2020|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20201229174152/https://ochs.org.uk/news/hinduism-monotheistic}}</ref> Nid oes gan Hindŵaeth "system gred unedig wedi'i hamgodio mewn datganiad o ffydd neu gredo",{{Sfn|Flood|1996}} ond yn hytrach mae'n derm ymbarél sy'n cynnwys lluosogrwydd ffenomenau crefyddol India.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Smith|first=W. C.|year=1962|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-5fImMZMqNIC|title=The Meaning and End of Religion|location=San Francisco|publisher=Harper and Row|isbn=978-0-7914-0361-7|page=65|access-date=27 OctoberHydref 2015}}</ref>{{Sfn|Halbfass|1991}} Yn ôl Goruchaf Lys India,
{{Dyfyniad|Yn wahanol i grefyddau eraill yn y Byd, nid yw'r grefydd Hindŵaidd yn hawlio un Proffwyd, nid yw'n addoli unrhyw un Duw, nid yw'n credu mewn unrhyw un cysyniad athronyddol ac nid yw'n dilyn unrhyw un ddefod neu berfformiad/au crefyddol; mewn gwirionedd, nid yw'n bodloni nodweddion traddodiadol crefydd na chredo. Mae'n ffordd o fyw a dim byd mwy ".{{sfn|Klostermaier|1994|p=1}}}}
 
=== Undod ===
Er gwaethaf y gwahaniaethau, mae yna ymdeimlad o undod hefyd.{{Sfn|Halbfass|1991}} Mae'r rhan fwyaf o draddodiadau Hindŵaidd yn parchu corff o lenyddiaeth grefyddol neu gysegredig, y [[Veda|Vedas]]s,{{Sfn|Nicholson|2010}} er bod eithriadau.{{Sfn|Flood|1996}} Mae'r testunau hyn yn ein hatgoffa o'r dreftadaeth ddiwylliannol hynafol ac maent yn destun balchder i Hindwiaid,<ref name="andreapinkney" /><ref>{{Cite book|last=Haines|first=Jeffrey|title=Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics|publisher=Routledge|year=2008|isbn=978-0-415-60029-3|page=80}}</ref> gyda Louis Renou yn nodi "hyd yn oed yn y parthau mwyaf uniongred, mae'r parch i'r Vedas yn amlwg".<ref name="andreapinkney">{{Cite book|last=Pinkney|first=Andrea|title=Routledge Handbook of Religions in Asia|publisher=Routledge|year=2014|isbn=978-0-415-63503-5|editor-last=Turner|editor-first=Bryan|pages=31–32|editor-last2=Salemink|editor-first2=Oscar}}</ref>{{Sfn|Halbfass|1991}}
 
== Credoau ==
[[Delwedd:Halebid3.JPG|de|bawd| Cerflun ar banel wal yn [[Teml Hoysaleswara|nheml Hoysaleswara]] yn Halebidu, yn cynrychioli'r [[Trimurti]]: [[Brahma]], [[Shiva]] a [[Vishnu]]]]
Mae themâu amlwg yng nghredoau Hindŵaidd yn cynnwys (ond heb fod yn gyfyngedig i) Dharma (moeseg / dyletswyddau), [[Samsara|saṃsāra]] (cylch parhaus ymglymiad mewn nwydau a'r enedigaeth, bywyd, marwolaeth ac aileni sy'n deillio o hynny), [[Karma]] (gweithredu, bwriad, a chanlyniadau ), moksha (rhyddhad rhag ymlyniad a saṃsāra), a'r amrywiol [[Ioga|iogasioga]]s (llwybrau neu arferion). {{Sfn|Brodd|2003}}
 
=== Purusharthas ===
 
==== Dharma (cyfiawnder, moeseg) ====
Ystyrir Dharma fel y nod mwyaf blaenllaw mewn Hindŵaeth.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Flood|first=Gavin|title=The Fruits of Our Desiring|year=1996a|isbn=978-1-896209-30-2|editor-last=Lipner|editor-first=Julius|pages=16–21|chapter=The meaning and context of the Purusarthas|author-link=Gavin Flood}}</ref> Mae'r cysyniad o dharma yn cynnwys ymddygiadau yr ystyrir eu bod yn unol ag [[rta]], y drefn sy'n gwneud bywyd a bydysawd yn bosibl, ac mae'n cynnwys dyletswyddau, hawliau, deddfau, ymddygiad, rhinweddau a "ffordd gywir o fyw".<ref name="tce">{{Cite book|title=The Columbia Encyclopedia|publisher=Columbia University Press|year=2013|isbn=978-0-7876-5015-5|edition=6th|chapter=Dharma}}</ref> Mae dharma Hindŵaidd yn cynnwys dyletswyddau crefyddol, hawliau moesol a dyletswyddau pob unigolyn, ynghyd ag ymddygiadau sy'n galluogi trefn gymdeithasol, ymddygiad cywir, a rhai rhinweddol.<ref name="tce" /> Dharma, yn ôl Van Buitenen,<ref name="vanbuitenen">{{Cite journal|last=Van Buitenen|first=J. A. B.|date=April–July 1957|title=Dharma and Moksa|journal=Philosophy East and West|volume=7|issue=1/2|pages=33–40|doi=10.2307/1396832|jstor=1396832}}</ref> yw'r hyn y mae'n rhaid i bob bod dynol presennol ei dderbyn a'i barchu i gynnal cytgord a threfn yn y byd.<ref name="vanbuitenen" />
 
==== Artha (bywoliaeth, cyfoeth) ====
 
=== Y cysyniad o Dduw ===
Mae Hindŵaeth yn system amrywiol o feddwl gydag amrywiaeth eang o gredoau;<ref name="Lipner2009p8">{{Harvard citation no brackets|Lipner|2009}} Quote: "[...] one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One mayMai be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic,henotheistic, panentheistic ,pandeistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Chakravarti|first=Sitansu|title=Hinduism, a way of life|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|year=1991|isbn=978-81-208-0899-7|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=J_-rASTgw8wC&pg=PA71|page=71|access-date=29 December 2020|archive-date=13 April 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170413105302/https://books.google.com/books?id=J_-rASTgw8wC&pg=PA71|url-status=live}}</ref><ref group="web">{{Cite encyclopedia|last=Smart|first=Ninian|year=2007|title=Polytheism|encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-38143/polytheism|access-date=5 JulyGorffennaf 2007|archive-date=10 AugustAwst 2011|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/60pyc0FDi?url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/469156/polytheism|url-status=live}}</ref> mae ei gysyniad o Dduw yn gymhleth ac yn dibynnu ar bob unigolyn a'r traddodiad a'r athroniaeth a ddilynir. Cyfeirir ato weithiau fel henotheistig (h.y., yn ymwneud ag ymroddiad i dduw sengl wrth dderbyn bodolaeth eraill), ond mae unrhyw derm o'r fath yn llawer rhy syml.{{Sfn|Michaels|2004}}<ref>{{Cite web|last=Gill|first=N.S|title=Henotheism|url=http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/egyptmyth/g/henotheism.htm|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070317151629/http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/egyptmyth/g/henotheism.htm|archivedate=17 MarchMawrth 2007|access-date=5 JulyGorffennaf 2007|publisher=[[About.com|About, Inc]]}}</ref>
 
Mae'r ''[[Nasadiya Sukta]]'' (''Emyn y Creu'') o'r ''[[Rig Veda]]'' yn un o'r testunau cynharaf {{Sfn|Flood|1996}} sy'n "dangos ymdeimlad o ddyfalu metaffisegol" am yr hyn a greodd y bydysawd, y cysyniad o dduw (iau) Yr Un, ac a yw hyd yn oed Yr Un yn gwybod sut y daeth y bydysawd i fodolaeth.<ref>{{Harvard citation no brackets|Flood|1996}}; {{Harvard citation no brackets|Kramer|1986}}</ref> Mae'r ''Rig Veda yn'' canmol nifer o dduwdodau (neu fân dduwiau), dim un ohonyn nhw'n uwchraddol nac yn israddol, mewn modd henotheistig.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Muller|first=Max|author-link=Max Muller|year=1878|title=Lectures on the Origins and Growth of Religions: As Illustrated by the Religions of India|publisher=Longmans Green & Co|pages=260–271}}<br /><br />{{Cite book|last=Wilkins|first=William Joseph|year=1882|title=Hindu Mythology: Vedic and Purānic|publisher=London Missionary Society|location=Calcutta|page=8|url={{Google books|ZBUHAAAAQAAJ|page=8|plain-url=yes}}}}</ref> Mae'r emynau yn cyfeirio dro ar ôl tro at Un Gwirionedd ac un Realaeth Eithaf. Dehonglwyd "Un Gwirionedd" o fewn llenyddiaeth Vedig, yn ysgolheictod yr oes fodern, fel undduwiaeth, monistiaeth, yn ogystal ag Egwyddorion Cudd y tu ôl i ddigwyddiadau a phrosesau mawr natur.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Raghavendrachar|first=H.N.|year=1944|title=Monism in the Vedas|journal=The Half-yearly Journal of the Mysore University|volume=4|issue=2|pages=137–152|url=http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/15675/1/12MONISMINTHEVEDAS.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150206070146/http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/15675/1/12MONISMINTHEVEDAS.pdf|archive-date=6 February 2015}}<br /><br />{{Cite journal|last=Werner|first=K.|year=1982|title=Men, gods and powers in the Vedic outlook|journal=Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland|volume=114|issue=1|pages=14–24|doi=10.1017/S0035869X00158575}}<br /><br />{{Cite journal|last=Coward|first=H.|year=1995|title=The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas|journal=Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies|volume=8|issue=1|pages=45–47|doi=10.7825/2164-6279.1116|quote=There is little doubt that the theo-monistic category is an appropriate one for viewing a wide variety of experiences in the Hindu tradition}}</ref>
 
Mae'r ''[[Nasadiya Sukta]]'' (''Emyn y Creu'') o'r ''[[Rig Veda]]'' yn un o'r testunau cynharaf {{Sfn|Flood|1996}} sy'n "dangos ymdeimlad o ddyfalu metaffisegol" am yr hyn a greodd y bydysawd, y cysyniad o dduw (iau) Yr Un, ac a yw hyd yn oed Yr Un yn gwybod sut y daeth y bydysawd i fodolaeth.<ref>{{Harvard citation no brackets|Flood|1996}}; {{Harvard citation no brackets|Kramer|1986}}</ref> Mae'r ''Rig Veda yn'' canmol nifer o dduwdodau (neu fân dduwiau), dim un ohonyn nhw'n uwchraddol nac yn israddol, mewn modd henotheistig.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Muller|first=Max|author-link=Max Muller|year=1878|title=Lectures on the Origins and Growth of Religions: As Illustrated by the Religions of India|publisher=Longmans Green & Co|pages=260–271}}<br /><br />{{Cite book|last=Wilkins|first=William Joseph|year=1882|title=Hindu Mythology: Vedic and Purānic|publisher=London Missionary Society|location=Calcutta|page=8|url={{Google books|ZBUHAAAAQAAJ|page=8|plain-url=yes}}}}</ref> Mae'r emynau yn cyfeirio dro ar ôl tro at Un Gwirionedd ac un Realaeth Eithaf. Dehonglwyd "Un Gwirionedd" o fewn llenyddiaeth Vedig, yn ysgolheictod yr oes fodern, fel undduwiaeth, monistiaeth, yn ogystal ag Egwyddorion Cudd y tu ôl i ddigwyddiadau a phrosesau mawr natur.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Raghavendrachar|first=H.N.|year=1944|title=Monism in the Vedas|journal=The Half-yearly Journal of the Mysore University|volume=4|issue=2|pages=137–152|url=http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/15675/1/12MONISMINTHEVEDAS.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150206070146/http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/15675/1/12MONISMINTHEVEDAS.pdf|archive-date=6 FebruaryChwefror 2015}}<br /><br />{{Cite journal|last=Werner|first=K.|year=1982|title=Men, gods and powers in the Vedic outlook|journal=Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland|volume=114|issue=1|pages=14–24|doi=10.1017/S0035869X00158575}}<br /><br />{{Cite journal|last=Coward|first=H.|year=1995|title=The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas|journal=Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies|volume=8|issue=1|pages=45–47|doi=10.7825/2164-6279.1116|quote=There is little doubt that the theo-monistic category is an appropriate one for viewing a wide variety of experiences in the Hindu tradition}}</ref>
 
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Mae Hindwiaid yn credu bod gan bob creadur byw 'Yr Hunan' (tebyg i 'Enaid'). Gelwir y gwir "Hunan" hwn o bob person yn '''ātman''' . Credir bod yr Hunan yn dragwyddol.{{Sfn|Monier-Williams|1974}} Yn ôl diwinyddiaeth monistig / pantheistig (di-ddeuol) Hindŵaidd, mae'r Atman hwn yn wahanol i Brahman, yr ysbryd goruchaf neu'r ''Realiti Ultimate''.<ref name="bhaskaranandaessential">{{Harvard citation no brackets|Bhaskarananda|1994}}</ref> Nod bywyd, yn ôl ysgol Advaita, yw sylweddoli bod Hunan rhywun yn union yr un fath â Hunan y goruchaf, bod yr Hunan goruchaf yn bresennol ym mhopeth a phawb, mae'r holl fywyd yn rhyng-gysylltiedig ac mae undod ym mhob bywyd.{{Sfn|Vivekananda|1987}}<ref>John Koller (2012), ''Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion'' (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0-415-78294-4}}, pp. 99–107</ref><ref>Lance Nelson (1996), "Living liberation in Shankara and classical Advaita", in ''Living Liberation in Hindu Thought'' (Editors: Andrew O. Fort, Patricia Y. Mumme), State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0-7914-2706-4}}, pages 38–39, 59 (footnote 105)</ref> Mae ysgolion deuistig (Dvaita a Bhakti) yn dehongli Brahman fel y Bod Goruchaf sydd ar wahân i'r Hunan unigol.<ref name="R Prasad 2009 pages 345-347">R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals, Concept Publishing, {{ISBN|978-81-8069-595-7}}, pages 345–347</ref> Maent yn addoli'r Bod Goruchaf fel [[Vishnu]], [[Brahma]], [[Shiva]], neu Shakti, yn dibynnu ar y sect. Gelwir Duw yn ''Ishvara'', ''Bhagavan'', ''Parameshwara'', ''[[Deva (Hindŵaeth)|Deva]]'' neu ''Devi'', ac mae gan y termau hyn wahanol ystyron mewn gwahanol ysgolion Hindŵaeth.{{Sfn|Eliade|2009}}{{Sfn|Radhakrishnan|Moore|1967}}{{Sfn|Monier-Williams|2001}}
 
=== Defodau ===
[[Delwedd:(A)_Hindu_wedding,_Saptapadi_ritual_before_Agni_Yajna.jpg|de|bawd|Priodas yw'r ddefod bersonol fwyaf helaeth y mae oedolyn Hindŵaidd yn ymgymryd â hi yn ei fywyd. Mae priodas Hindŵaidd nodweddiadol yn cael ei gweinyddu cyn defod tân Vedig (gw. y llun).{{Sfn|Lochtefeld|2002a}}]]
Mae'r rhan fwyaf o Hindwiaid yn cynnal defodau crefyddol gartref.<ref>{{Harvard citation no brackets|Muesse|2011}}. "rituals daily prescribe routine"</ref> Mae'r defodau'n amrywio'n fawr ymhlith ardaloedd, pentrefi ac unigolion. Nid ydyn nhw'n orfodol mewn Hindŵaeth. Dewis unigolyn yw natur a lle defodau. Mae rhai Hindwiaid defosiynol yn perfformio defodau dyddiol fel addoli ar doriad y wawr ar ôl cael bath (fel arfer mewn cysegr teulu, ac yn nodweddiadol mae'n cynnwys goleuo lamp ac yn cynnig bwydydd o flaen delweddau o'r duwiau), llefaru o sgriptiau crefyddol, canu bhajans (emynau defosiynol), [[ioga]], [[myfyrdod]], llafarganu [[Mantra|mantrasmantra]]s ac eraill.{{Sfn|Heitzman|Worden|1996|pp=145–146}}
 
Gwelir defodau Vedig gyda thân (''yajna'') a llafarganu emynau Vedig ar achlysuron arbennig, fel priodasau Hindŵaidd.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Sharma|first=A|year=1985|title=Marriage in the Hindu religious tradition|journal=Journal of Ecumenical Studies|volume=22|issue=1|pages=69–80}}</ref> Mae digwyddiadau mawr eraill bywyd, fel defodau ar ôl [[marwolaeth]], yn cynnwys ''yajña'' a [[Mantra|llafarganu mantras]] Vedig.<ref group="web">{{Cite web|title=Hindu Marriage Act, 1955|url=http://www.sudhirlaw.com/HMA55.htm|access-date=25 JuneMehefin 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070605133731/http://www.sudhirlaw.com/HMA55.htm|archivedate=5 JuneMehefin 2007}}</ref>
 
Mae geiriau'r mantras yn "sanctaidd." {{Sfn|Holdrege|1996}}{{Sfn|Holdrege|1996}} Wrth eu defnyddio mewn defodau Vedig maent yn dod yn [[Dewiniaeth|synau hudol]], "yn ddull i gyrraedd y nod."{{Refn|Klostermaier: "''Brahman'', derived from the root ''bŗh'' = to grow, to become great, was originally identical with the Vedic word, that makes people prosper: words were the pricipan means to approach the gods who dwelled in a different sphere. It was not a big step from this notion of "reified [[Speech act|speech-act]]" to that "of the speech-act being looked at implicitly and explicitly as a means to an end." {{harvnb|Klostermaier|2007|p=55}} quotes Madhav M. Deshpande (1990), [https://www.scribd.com/document/378011865/Madhav-Deshpande-Changing-Conceptions-of-the-Veda-From-Speech-Acts-to-Magical-Sounds ''Changing Conceptions of the Veda: From Speech-Acts to Magical Sounds''], p.4.}} Yn y persbectif Brahmanaidd, mae gan y synau eu hystyr eu hunain, ystyrir mantras yn "rythmau cyntefig cyntaf y greadigaeth", cyn y ffurfiau y maent yn cyfeirio atynt.{{Sfn|Holdrege|1996}} Trwy eu llafarganu mae'r cosmos yn cael ei adfywio, "trwy fywiogi a maethu ffurfiau'r greadigaeth yn eu sylfaen. Cyn belled â bod purdeb y synau yn cael ei gadw, bydd adrodd y ''mantras'' yn effeithiol, ni waeth a yw bodau dynol yn deall eu hystyr disylwedd."{{Sfn|Holdrege|1996}}<ref name="Coward2008p114">{{Harvard citation no brackets|Coward|2008}}: "For the Mimamsa the ultimate reality is nothing other than the eternal words of the Vedas. They did not accept the existence of a single supreme creator god, who might have composed the Veda. According to the Mimamsa, gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. The power of the gods, then, is nothing other than the power of the mantras that name them."</ref>
=== Gwyliau ===
[[Delwedd:Deepawali-festival.jpg|de|bawd| Mae gŵyl y goleuadau, [[Divali|Diwali]], yn cael ei dathlu gan Hindwiaid ledled y byd.]]
[[Delwedd:Hindus_in_Ghana_celebrating_Ganesh_Chaturti.jpg|bawd| Hindwiaid yn Ghana yn dathlu Ganesh Chaturti]]
Mae gwyliau Hindŵaidd (Sansgrit: ''Utsava'' ; yn llythrennol: "i godi'n uwch") yn seremonïau sy'n plethu bywyd unigol a chymdeithasol i dharma.<ref name="sandrarobinson" /><ref name="yustf">{{Cite book|last=Yust|first=Karen-Marie|title=Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|year=2005|isbn=978-0-7425-4463-5|page=234|chapter=Sacred Celebrations|postscript=. See also Chapter 18.}}</ref> Mae gan Hindŵaeth lawer o wyliau trwy gydol y flwyddyn, lle mae'r dyddiadau'n cael eu gosod gan y calendr Hindŵaidd lunisolar, ac mae llawer ohonynt yn cyd-daro naill ai â'r lleuad lawn (''Holi'') neu'r lleuad newydd (''Diwali''), yn aml gyda newidiadau tymhorol.<ref name="denisecushf">{{Cite book|last=Robinson|first=Sandra|title=Encyclopedia of Hinduism|publisher=Routledge|year=2007|isbn=978-0-7007-1267-0|editor-last=Cush|editor-first=Denise|page=907}}</ref> Dim ond yn rhanbarthol y mae rhai gwyliau i'w cael ac maen nhw'n dathlu traddodiadau lleol, tra bod ambell un fel ''Holi'' a ''Diwali'' yn draws-Hindŵaidd.<ref name="denisecushf" /><ref>{{Cite book|last=Foulston|first=Lynn|title=Hindu Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices|last2=Abbott|first2=Stuart|publisher=Sussex Academic Press|year=2009|isbn=978-1-902210-43-8|page=155}}</ref> Mae'r gwyliau fel arfer yn dathlu digwyddiadau Hindŵaidd, gan gysylltu themâu ysbrydol a dathlu agweddau ar berthnasoedd dynol fel y berthynas agos Chwaer-Frawd dros ''ŵyl Raksha Bandhan'' (neu Bhai Dooj).<ref name="yustf" /><ref>{{Cite book|editor-last=Holberg|editor-first=Dale|title=Students' Britannica India|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica (India)|year=2000|isbn=978-0-85229-760-5|volume=2|page=120|chapter=Festival calendar of India|quote=Raksha Bandhan (also called Rakhi), when girls and women tie a rakhi (a symbolic thread) on their brothers' wrists and pray for their prosperity, happiness and goodwill. The brothers, in turn, give their sisters a token gift and promise protection.}}</ref> Mae'r un ŵyl weithiau'n nodi gwahanol straeon yn dibynnu ar yr enwad Hindŵaidd, ac mae'r dathliadau'n ymgorffori themâu rhanbarthol, amaethyddiaeth draddodiadol, celfyddydau lleol, cyfarfyddiadau teuluol, defodau a gwleddoedd Puja.<ref name="sandrarobinson">{{Cite book|last=Robinson|first=Sandra|title=Encyclopedia of Hinduism|publisher=Routledge|year=2007|isbn=978-0-7007-1267-0|editor-last=Cush|editor-first=Denise|pages=908–912}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Frazier|first=Jessica|title=The Bloomsbury Companion to Hindu Studies|publisher=Bloomsbury Academic|year=2015|isbn=978-1-4725-1151-5|pages=255, 271–273}}</ref>
 
=== Pererindota ===
Mae llawer o ymlynwyr yn ymgymryd â [[Pererindod|phererindodau]], sydd yn hanesyddol wedi bod yn rhan bwysig o Hindŵaeth ac yn parhau felly heddiw.{{Sfn|Fuller|2004}} Ceir safleoedd pererindota yn ''Tirtha'', ''Kshetra'', ''Gopitha'' neu ''Mahalaya''.{{Sfn|Lochtefeld|2002n}}{{Sfn|Jacobsen|2013}} Enw'r broses neu'r siwrnai sy'n gysylltiedig â ''Tirtha'' yw ''Tirtha-yatra''.{{Sfn|Bhardwaj|1983|page=2}} Yn ôl y testun Hindŵaidd ''Skanda Purana'', mae tri math i Tirtha: mae Jangam Tirtha i le y gellir ei symud o sadhu, rishi, guru. Mae Sthawar Tirtha i le na ellir ei symud, fel Benaras, Haridwar, Mynydd Kailash, afonydd sanctaidd; tra bod Manas Tirtha i le o feddwl, o wirionedd, elusen, amynedd, tosturi, neu'r Hunan.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Sharma|first=Krishan|last2=Sinha|first2=Anil Kishore|last3=Banerjee|first3=Bijon Gopal|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RrkUMlsu_YIC|title=Anthropological Dimensions of Pilgrimage|publisher=Northern Book Centre|year=2009|isbn=978-81-89091-09-5|pages=3–5}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Maw|first=Geoffrey Waring|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IarXAAAAMAAJ|title=Pilgrims in Hindu Holy Land: Sacred Shrines of the Indian Himalayas|publisher=Sessions Book Trust|year=1997|isbn=978-1-85072-190-1|page=7|access-date=5 JulyGorffennaf 2017}}</ref> Mae ''Tīrtha-yatra'', yn unrhyw beth sydd â gwerth salvific i Hindw, ac mae'n cynnwys safleoedd pererindod fel mynyddoedd neu goedwigoedd neu lan y môr neu afonydd neu byllau, yn ogystal â rhinweddau, gweithredoedd, astudiaethau neu gyflwr meddwl.{{Sfn|Jacobsen|2013}}{{Sfn|Michaels|2004}}
 
== Diwylliant ==
Mae'r term " [[Hindŵaeth|diwylliant Hindŵaidd]] " yn cyfeirio at agweddau cymedrig ar ddiwylliant sy'n ymwneud â'r grefydd, fel [[Gŵyl|gwyliau]] a chodau gwisg a ddilynir gan yr Hindwiaid y gellir eu hysbrydoli'n bennaf o [[Diwylliant India|ddiwylliant India]] a [[De-ddwyrain Asia]]. Er y bu cymysgedd o ddiwylliant gwahanol mewn Hindŵaeth, mae hefyd wedi dylanwadu ar ddiwylliannau llawer o genhedloedd, yn bennaf y rhan o India Fwyaf.
 
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