Y gwahaniaeth rhwng diwygiadau o "Hong Cong"

Ychwanegwyd 82 beit ,  3 blynedd yn ôl
B
fformatio
(maes awyr)
B (fformatio)
[[Delwedd:13-08-09-hongkong-by-RalfR-063.jpg|bawd|chwith|upright]]
{{Gwybodlen Gwlad
|enw_brodorol = 香港特別行政區<br>''Hong Kong Special Administrative Region''
 
Daeth Hong Cong yn drefedigaeth gan [[yr Ymerodraeth Brydeinig]] wedi'r [[Rhyfel Opiwm Cyntaf]] (1839–42). Yn wreiddiol [[Ynys Hong Cong]] yn unig oedd dan reolaeth y Prydeinwyr, ond ehangodd ffiniau'r drefedigaeth i gynnwys [[Gorynys Kowloon]] ym 1860 a'r [[Tiriogaethau Newydd]] ym 1898. Cafodd ei [[Meddiannaeth Hong Cong gan Japan|feddiannu gan Japan]] yn ystod [[yr Ail Ryfel Byd]], ac wedi'r rhyfel atfeddiannodd Brydain Hong Cong hyd [[Trosglwyddiad sofraniaeth Hong Cong|drosglwyddo sofraniaeth i Tsieina]] ym 1997.<ref>{{cite web|title=Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong|date=19 December 1984|quote=The Government of the People's Republic of China declares that to recover the Hong The Government of the People's Republic of China declares that to recover the Hong Kong area (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories, hereinafter referred to as Hong Kong) is the common aspiration of the entire Chinese people, and that it has decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong with effect from 1 July 1997.|url=http://www.cmab.gov.hk/en/issues/jd2.htm|publisher=Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Hong Kong Government|postscript=<!--None-->|accessdate=4 October 2010}}</ref><ref name=otd>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/1/newsid_2656000/2656973.stm|title=On This Day: 1997: Hong Kong handed over to Chinese control|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=9 September 2008|date=1 July 1997}}</ref> Yn ystod ei chyfnod trefedigaethol mabwysiadodd llywodraeth Hong Cong bolisi o ymatal rhag ymyrryd yn yr economi dan yr ethos o [[anymyrraeth bositif]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cnbc.com/id/32970596?slide=14|title=The World's Most Competitive Financial Centers|publisher=[[CNBC]]|accessdate=30 October 2009 }}</ref> Cafodd y cyfnod hwn ddylanwad mawr ar ddiwylliant Hong Cong, a elwir yn aml yn "cwrdd rhwng y Dwyrain a'r Gorllewin",<ref name="cnntravel">{{cite news |url=http://edition.cnn.com/2009/TRAVEL/03/06/24hours.hongkong/index.html?eref=rss_travel |title=24 hours in Hong Kong: Urban thrills where East meets West |publisher=CNN|date=8 March 2009 |accessdate=27 May 2009}}</ref> ac roedd y system addysg yn arfer dilyn system Lloegr<ref name="HKUChan">{{cite book|last=Chan|first=Shun-hing|last2=Leung|first2=Beatrice|year=2003|title=Changing Church and State Relations in Hong Kong, 1950–2000|publisher=[[Hong CKong University Press]]|page=24|isbn=962-209-612-3}}</ref> nes iddi gael ei diwygio yn 2009.<ref name=nss>{{cite web |url=http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=2063&langno=1 |title=Programme Highlights|work=Hong Kong Government|accessdate=20 October 2010}}</ref>
[[Delwedd:Hong Kong Night Skyline.jpg|bawd|chwith|Hong Cong fin nos.]]
 
Dan yr egwyddor "[[un wlad, dwy system]]", mae gan Hong Cong system wleidyddol wahanol i [[tir mawr Tsieina|dir mawr Tsieina]].<ref>{{cite book|last=So|first=Dudley L.|last2=Lin|first2=Nan|last3=Poston|year=2001|title=The Chinese Triangle of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong|publisher=[[Greenwood Publishing]]|pages=13–29|isbn=0-313-30869-1}}</ref> Gweithreda [[barnwriaeth annibynnol]] Hong Cong dan fframwaith [[y gyfraith gyffredin]].<ref name="BasicLawC4S4">{{cite web|url=http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_4.html#section_4|title=Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 4|publisher=Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee|accessdate=10 November 2009}}</ref><ref name="RusellP">{{cite book|last=Russell|first=Peter H.|first2=David M.|last2=O'Brien|title=Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the World|year=2001|publisher=[[University of Virginia Press]]|isbn=978-0-8139-2016-0|page=306}}</ref> Llywodraethir y system wleidyddol gan [[Cyfraith Sylfaenol Hong Cong|Gyfraith Sylfaenol Hong Cong]], dogfen gyfansoddiadol sy'n mynnu i Hong Cong gael "gradd uchel o hunanlywodraeth" mewn pob mater ac eithrio cysylltiadau tramor ac amddiffyniad milwrol.<ref name="BasicLawC2">{{cite web|url=http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_2.html|title=Basic Law, Chapter II|publisher=Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee|accessdate=10 November 2009}}</ref><ref name="Ghai">{{cite book|last=Ghai|first=Yash P.|title=Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-ethnic States|year=2000|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|isbn=978-0-521-78642-3|pages=92–97}}</ref> Er bod ei [[system amlbleidiol]] yn tyfu, mae etholyddiaeth fechan yn rheoli hanner [[Cyngor Deddfwriaethol Hong Cong|y Cyngor Deddfwriaethol]]. Hynny yw, dewisir [[Prif Weithredwr Hong Cong]], sef pennaeth y llywodraeth, gan Bwyllgor Etholiadol o 400 i 1,200 o aelodau, a bydd y system hon yn gweithredu am y 20 mlynedd gyntaf dan sofraniaeth Tsieina.<ref>{{cite web|title=Decision of the National People's Congress on the Method for the Formation of the First Government and the First Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region|url=http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/attached_4.html|accessdate=21 February 2012}}</ref><ref name="BasicLawC4S1">{{cite web|url=http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_4.html#section_1|title=Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 1|publisher=Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee|accessdate=10 November 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Amendment to Annex I to the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China Concerning the Method for the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region|url=http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/images/Amendment_to_AnnexI.pdf}}</ref><ref name="Rioni">{{cite book|last=Rioni|first=S. G.|title=Hong Kong in Focus: Political and Economic Issues|year=2002|publisher=[[Nova Publishers]]|isbn=978-1-59033-237-5|pages=9–10}}</ref>
 
[[Delwedd:VictoriaHarbour.jpg|300px|de|bawd|Harbwr [[Victoria (Hong Cong)|Victoria]], [[Ynys Hong Cong]].]]
 
Mae Hong Cong yn un o brif [[canolfan ariannol|ganolfannau ariannol]] y byd, a chanddi economi gwasanaethau cyfalafol gyda threthi isel a masnach rydd. Yr arian cyfred, sef [[doler Hong Cong]], yw'r wythfed arian cyfred a fasnachir mwyaf yn y byd.<ref name="bis.org">{{cite journal|url=http://www.bis.org/publ/rpfxf10t.pdf|title=Triennial Central Bank Survey: Report on global foreign exchange market activity in 2010|date=December 2010|work=Monetary and Economic Department|page=12|publisher=[[Bank for International Settlements]]|accessdate=15 October 2011}}</ref>
 
== Hanes ==
=Cludiant=
{{eginyn-adran}}
 
== Daearyddiaeth ==
==Maes Awyr Rhyngwladol Hong Cong==
[[Delwedd:Hong Kong Night Skyline.jpg|bawd|chwith|Hong Cong fin nos.]]
[[Delwedd:VictoriaHarbour.jpg|300px|de|bawd|Harbwr [[Victoria (Hong Cong)|Victoria]], [[Ynys Hong Cong]].]]
{{eginyn-adran}}
 
== Cludiant ==
[[Delwedd:13-08-09-hongkong-by-RalfR-063.jpg|bawd|chwith|upright]]
=== Maes Awyr Rhyngwladol Hong Cong ===
Gwasanaethir Hong Cong gan [[Maes Awyr Rhyngwladol Hong Cong]], sydd ar [[Ynys Chek Lap Kok]], yn ymyl [[Ynys Lantau]].
 
=== Tramffyrdd Hong Cong ===
[[Delwedd:HongCong03LB.jpg|chwith|bawd|260px]]
Dechreuodd gwaith adeiladu tramffyrd ar Ynys Hong Cong ym 1903 <ref>[https://www.hktramways.com/en/our-story Tudalen hanes ar wefan tramffyrdd Hong Cong]</ref>; mae’r rhwywaith wedi cael ei estyn yn raddol, ac mae’r tramiau’n rhedeg hyd at heddiw.
 
=== Fferiau Star ===
[[Delwedd:Kowloon01LB.jpg|chwith|bawd|260px|Fferi Star yn gadael Kowloon]]
Dechreuodd gwasanaeth fferi dros [[Harbwr Fictoria]] rhwng Ynys Hong Cong a [[Kowloon]] ym 1880, a ffurfiwyd [[Cwmni Fferiau Star]] ym 1889, sydd yn parhau i gynnig yr un wasanaeth..<ref>[http://www.starferry.com.hk/en/theCompany Gwefan starferry.com]</ref>
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