Y gwahaniaeth rhwng diwygiadau o "Manaweg"

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[[Ieithoedd Celtaidd|Iaith Geltaidd]] gynhenid [[Ynys Manaw]] yw '''Manaweg''' (Manaweg: <i lang="gv">Gaelg/Gailick</i>). Mae'n perthyn yn agos i ieithoedd Celtaidd [[Iwerddon]] a'r [[Alban]] - [[Gwyddeleg]] a [[Gaeleg]] - fel rhan o'r is-deulu ieithyddol Celteg Q neu [[Goideleg]] (sydd gyda'r [[Brythoneg|Frythoneg]] yn rhan o deulu mwy, sef [[Celteg Ynysig]].
 
== Hanes ==
Credir i'r iaith Fanaweg gael ei chyflwyno i'r ynys gan ymsefydlwyr o [[Iwerddon]] yn y [[4g]] neu'r [[5ed ganrif|5ed]] O. C. Ymsefydlai llwythi eraill o Iwerddon mewn rhannau gorllewinol o [[Cymru|Gymru]] a'r Alban yn yr un cyfnod. Mae milewniwm gyntaf ei bodolaeth yn dywyll. Does dim llenyddiaeth o'r cyfnod wedi goroesi a rhaid dibynnu ar dystiolaeth enwau lleoedd a phersonol am ein gwybodaeth. Dim ond yn y [[18g]] a'r [[19eg ganrif|19eg]] y daw'r dystiolaeth ysgrifenedig gyntaf i'r golwg (ac eithrio ambell arysgrifiad a chofnod byr) ar ffurf cyfieithiadau crefyddol, geiriaduron a gramdegau, yn ogystal â cherddi llafar a baledi â'i gwreiddiau yn yr [[16g]] efallai.
 
Daeth yr [[iaith]] i ben fel iaith gymunedol naturiol yn hanner cyntaf yr [[20fed ganrif|ugeinfed ganrif]]. Bu farw siaradwr cynhenid olaf y Fanaweg, Ned Maddrell, yn [[1974]], ond mae'r iaith wedi profi ychydig o adfywiad yn ddiweddar. Fe'i siaredir gan rai cannoedd o Fanawiaid - rhai sydd wedi dysgu'r iaith o ddiddordeb, a rhai o'u plant yn ogystal. Agorwyd yr ysgol Fanaweg gyntaf, y [[Bunscoill Ghaelgagh]], yn 2001. Yn ôl cyfrifiad [[2011]] mae 1,823 yn gallu ei siarad, ei darllen a'i hysgrifennu.
 
== Treigladau ==
[[Delwedd:Douglas Isle of Man welcome sign.jpg|bawd|Mae [[arwyddion dwyieithog]] i'w gweld mewn llawer o lefydd, er enghraifft, [[Douglas (Ynys Manaw)|Douglas]]. Sylwch fod enw Manaweg y dre, ''Doolish'', wedi treiglo i ''Ghoolish''.]]
 
Fel pob iaith Celtaidd, ceir treigladau.<ref>Broderick 1984–86, 1:7–21; 1993, 236–39; Thomson 1992, 132–35</ref> Mae ganddi ddau dreiglad: ''boggaghys'' (math o [[treiglad meddal|dreiglad meddal]]) a ''stronnaghys'' (math o [[treiglad trwynol|dreiglad trwynol]]). Mae dau fath o ''boggaghys'' i'w gweld mewn sefyllfoedd gwahanol. Dydyn nhw ddim yn gweithio fel treigladau'r Gymraeg.
 
Dyma dreigladau Manaweg:
! style="background-color:#FFDEAD;" | Ail fath
|-
|'''p''' {{IPA|/p/}}||'''ph''' {{IPA|/f/}}||'''ph''' {{IPA|/f/}}||'''b''' {{IPA|/b/}}
|-
|'''t''', '''th''' {{IPA|/t/}}||'''h''' {{IPA|/h/}} ||'''t''', '''th''' {{IPA|/t/}}||'''d''' {{IPA|/d/}}
|-
|'''çh''' {{IPA|/tʃ/}}||'''h''' {{IPA|/h/}}||'''çh''' {{IPA|/tʃ/}}||'''j''' {{IPA|/dʒ/}}
|-
|'''c''', '''k''' ''keyl'' {{IPA|/kʲ/}}||'''ch''' {{IPA|/ç/}}||'''ch''' {{IPA|/ç/}}||'''g''' {{IPA|/gʲ/}}
|-
|'''c''', '''k''' ''lheean'' {{IPA|/k/}}||'''ch''' {{IPA|/x/}}||'''ch''' {{IPA|/x/}}||'''g''' {{IPA|/g/}}
|-
|'''b''' {{IPA|/b/}}||'''v''' {{IPA|/v/, /w/}}||'''v''' {{IPA|/v/, /w/}}||'''m''' {{IPA|/m/}}
|-
|'''bw''' {{IPA|/bw/}}||'''w''' {{IPA|/w/}}||'''w''' {{IPA|/w/}}||'''mw''' {{IPA|/mw/}}
|-
|'''d''', '''dh''' {{IPA|/d/}}||'''gh''' {{IPA|/ɣ/}}||'''d''' {{IPA|/d/}}||'''n'''{{IPA|/n/}}
|-
|'''j''' {{IPA|/dʒ/}}||'''y''' {{IPA|/j/}}||'''j''' {{IPA|/dʒ/}}||'''n'y''' {{IPA|/nj/}}
|-
|'''g''' ''keyl'' {{IPA|/gʲ/}}||'''y''', '''gh''' {{IPA|/j/}}||'''y''', '''gh''' {{IPA|/j/}}||'''ng''' {{IPA|/ŋʲ/}}
|-
|'''g''' ''lheean'' {{IPA|/g/}}||'''gh''' {{IPA|/ɣ/}}||'''gh''' {{IPA|/ɣ/}}||'''ng''' {{IPA|/ŋ/}}
|-
|'''f''' {{IPA|/f/}}|| (dim) || (dim) ||'''v''' {{IPA|/v/}}
|-
|'''s''' {{IPA|/s/}}||'''h''' {{IPA|/h/}}|| '''t'''{{IPA|/t/}}||'''s''' {{IPA|/s/}}
|-
|'''str''' {{IPA|/st/}}||'''tr''' {{IPA|/t/}}||'''tr''' {{IPA|/t/}}||'''str''' {{IPA|/st/}}
|-
|'''sl''' {{IPA|/sl/}}||'''l''' {{IPA|/l/}}||'''cl''' {{IPA|/kl/}} ||'''sl''' {{IPA|/sl/}}
|-
|'''sn''' {{IPA|/sl/}}||'''n''', '''sn''' {{IPA|/n/, /sn/}}||'''n''', '''sn''' {{IPA|/n/, /sn/}} ||'''sn''' {{IPA|/sn/}}
|-
|'''sh''' {{IPA|/ʃ/}}||'''h''' {{IPA|/h/}}||'''ç''' {{IPA|/tʃ/}}||'''sh''' {{IPA|/ʃ/}}
|-
|'''m''' {{IPA|/m/}}||'''v''' {{IPA|/v/, /w/}}||'''v''' {{IPA|/v/, /w/}}||'''m''' {{IPA|/m/}}
|-
|'''mw''' {{IPA|/mw/}}||'''w''' {{IPA|/w/}}||'''w''' {{IPA|/w/}}||'''mw''' {{IPA|/mw/}}
|-
|'''qu''' {{IPA|/kw/}}||'''wh''' {{IPA|/ʍ/}}||'''wh''' {{IPA|/ʍ/}}||'''qu''' {{IPA|/kw/}}
|}
 
| {{lang|ga|''Maidin mhaith''}}
| {{lang|gd|''Madainn mhath''}}
| ''Bore da''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''Fastyr mie''}}
| {{lang|ga|''Tráthnóna maith''}}
| {{lang|gd|''Feasgar math''}}
| ''Prynhawn da''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''Slane lhiat'', ''Slane lhiu''}}
| {{lang|ga|''Slán leat'', ''Slán libh''}}
| {{lang|gd|''Slàn leat'', ''Slàn leibh''}}
| ''Hwyl [iti, ichi]''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''Gura mie ayd'', ''Gura mie eu''}}
| {{lang|ga|''Go raibh maith agat'', ''Go raibh maith agaibh''}}
| {{lang|gd|''Tapadh leat'', ''Tapadh leibh''}}
| ''Diolch [iti, ichi]''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''baatey''}}
| {{lang|ga|''bád''}}
| {{lang|gd|''bàta''}}
| ''cwch''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''barroose''}}
| {{lang|ga|''bus''}}
| {{lang|gd|''bus''}}
| ''bws''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''blaa''}}
| {{lang|ga|''bláth''}}
| {{lang|gd|''blàth''}}
| ''blodyn''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''booa''}}
| {{lang|ga|''bó''}}
| {{lang|gd|''bò''}}
| ''buwch''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''cabbyl''}}
| {{lang|ga|''capall''}}
| {{lang|gd|''capall''}}
| ''ceffyl''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''cashtal''}}
| {{lang|ga|''caisleán, caiseal''}}
| {{lang|gd|''caisteal''}}
| ''castell''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''creg''}}
| {{lang|ga|''carraig''}}
| {{lang|gd|''carraig, creag''}}
| ''carreg''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''eeast'', ''yeeast''}}
| {{lang|ga|''iasc''}}
| {{lang|gd|''iasg''}}
| ''pysgod''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''ellan''}}
| {{lang|ga|''oileán''}}
| {{lang|gd|''eilean''}}
| ''ynys''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''gleashtan''}}
| {{lang|ga|''gluaisteán'', ''carr''}}
| {{lang|ga|''càr''}}
| ''car''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''kayt''}}
| {{lang|ga|''cat''}}
| {{lang|gd|''cat''}}
| ''cathod''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''moddey''}}
| {{lang|ga|''madra, madadh''}}
| {{lang|gd|''madadh''}}
| ''ci''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''shap''}}
| {{lang|ga|''siopa''}}
| {{lang|gd|''bùth''}}
| ''siop''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''thie''}}
| {{lang|ga|''tigh, teach''}}
| {{lang|gd|''taigh''}}
| ''''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''eean''}}
| {{lang|ga|''éan''}}
| {{lang|gd|''eun, ian''}}
| ''aderyn''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''jees''}}
| {{lang|ga|''beirt, dís''}}
| {{lang|gd|''dithis''}}
| ''dau, dwy; pâr''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''oik''}}
| {{lang|ga|''oifig''}}
| {{lang|gd|''oifis''}}
| ''swydd''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''ushtey''}}
| {{lang|ga|''uisce''}}
| {{lang|gd|''uisge''}}
| ''dŵr''
|}
 
| {{lang|ga|''aon (a haon) / amháin''}}
| {{lang|gd|''aon''}}
| ''un''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''daa / jees''}}<ref group="n">Mae treiglad ''boggaghys'' yr math cyntaf ar ôl {{lang|gv|''daa''}}. Mae {{lang|gv|''jeig''}} yn treiglo i {{lang|gv|''yeig''}} hefyd.</ref><ref group="n">Dydy {{lang|gv|"daa"}} a {{lang|gv|"jees"}} ddim yn ffurfiau benwyaidd a gwrywaidd fel ''dau'' a ''dwy''. Mae {{lang|gv|"daa"}} i'w weld efo enwau, a mae {{lang|gv|"jees"}} i'w weld ar ei ben ei hun neu efo rhagenwau. Er enghraifft, dywedwyd {{lang|gv|"nane, jees, tree, kiare, queig"}} am rifo, neu {{lang|gv|"honnick mee jees jeu"}} ("welais i ddau ohonyn"); ond {{lang|gv|"ta daa vac oc"}} (''mae ganddynt dau fab'').</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''dó, dhá / beirt / dís''}}
| {{lang|gd|''dà / dithis''}}
| ''dau, dwy''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''tree''}}<ref group="n">Does dim ffurfiau benywaidd / gwrywaidd.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''trí''}}
| {{lang|gd|''trì''}}
| ''tri, tair''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''kiare''}}<ref group="n">Does dim ffurfiau benywaidd / gwrywaidd.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''ceathair, ceithre''}}
| {{lang|gd|''ceithir''}}
| ''pedwar, pedair''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''queig''}}
| {{lang|ga|''cúig''}}
| {{lang|gd|''còig''}}
| ''pump''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''shey''}}
| {{lang|ga|''sé''}}
| {{lang|ga|''sia''}}
| ''chwech''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''shiaght''}}
| {{lang|ga|''seacht''}}
| {{lang|gd|''seachd''}}
| ''saith''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''hoght''}}
| {{lang|ga|''ocht (a hocht)''}}
| {{lang|gd|''ochd''}}
| ''wyth''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''nuy''}}
| {{lang|ga|''naoi''}}
| {{lang|gd|''naoi''}}
| ''naw''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''jeih''}}
| {{lang|ga|''deich''}}
| {{lang|gd|''deich''}}
| ''deg''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''nane jeig'', ''un jeig''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''un''}} a {{lang|gv|''jeig''}}, a bydd ganddo fo treiglad ''boggaghys'' yr ail fath. Er enghraifft, {{lang|gv|''un chayt jeig''}} yn lle ''un deg un o gathod'' neu ''unarddeg cathod''.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''aon déag''}}
| {{lang|gd|''aon deug''}}
| ''unarddeg, un deg un''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''daa yeig''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''daa''}} a {{lang|gv|''yeig''}}, a bydd ganddo fo treiglad ''boggaghys'' y math cyntaf. Er enghraifft, {{lang|gv|''daa chayt yeig''}} yn lle ''dwy gath ar ddeg'' neu ''deuddeg cath''.</ref><ref group="n">Does dim ffurf {{lang|gv|*''jees jeig''}}.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''dó dhéag''}}
| {{lang|gd|''dà dheug''}}
| ''deuddeg, un deg dau, un deg dwy''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''tree as feed''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''tree''}} a {{lang|gv|''feed''}}.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''fiche trí''}}
| {{lang|gd|''trì air fhichead''}}
| ''tri ar hugain, dau ddeg tri''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''nane-jeig as feed''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''nane''}} a {{lang|gv|''jeig''}}.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|'' triocha haon''}}
| {{lang|gd|''aon dheug air fhichead''}}
| ''unarddeg ar hugain, tri deg un''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''tree as daeed''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''tree''}} a {{lang|gv|''daeed''}}.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''daichead trí''}}
| {{lang|gd|''dà fhichead is a trì''}}
| ''degain a thri, pedwar deg tri''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''tree feed as tree''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''feed''}} a {{lang|gv|''tree''}}.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''seasca trí''}}
| {{lang|gd|''trì fhichead is a trì''}}
| ''trigain a thri, chwe deg tri''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''kiare feed as tree''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''feed''}} a {{lang|gv|''tree''}}.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''ochtó trí''}}
| {{lang|gd|''ceithir fhichead is a trì''}}
| ''pedwar ugain a thri, wyth deg tri''
|-
| {{lang|gv|''keead as daa-yeig as feed''}}<ref group="n">Mae'r enw i'w weld rhwng {{lang|gv|''keead''}} a {{lang|gv|''as''}}.</ref>
| {{lang|ga|''céad triocha dó''}}
| {{lang|gd|''ceud dà dheug air fhichead''}}
| ''cant a deuddeg ar hugain, cant tri deg dau''
|}
 
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